David Rockefeller

David Rockefeller


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David Rockefeller er den femte og yngste sønnen til John D. og barnebarnet til grunnleggeren av Standard Oil. Han gikk inn i familiebankvirksomheten og ble en av verdens mest fremtredende bankfolk.Rockefeller ble født i New York City 12. juni 1915. Han gikk på skole i New York City og ble uteksaminert med en bachelorgrad i engelsk historie og litteratur fra Harvard University i 1936. Rockefeller giftet seg med Margaret "Peggy" McGrath i september 1940 og de reiste seks barn, inkludert sønnen David Rockefeller Jr. David Sr. Under andre verdenskrig tjenestegjorde Rockefeller i Nord -Afrika og Frankrike. Army Commendation Ribbon, og den franske æreslegionen.Etter krigen begynte Rockefeller i Chase Manhattan Bank, som familien kontrollerte. I 1961 ble han president, og fra da til 1981 hadde han minst en av bankens tre øverste lederstillinger - president, administrerende direktør eller styreleder. Han har også sittet i bankens internasjonale rådgivende komité siden 1981, sammen med andre, inkludert Henry Kissinger, George P. Han var også styreleder i Council on Foreign Relations fra 1970 til 1985, en utdanningsinstitusjon der akademiske ledere og ledere fra offentlig og privat sektor, møtes for å diskutere utenrikssaker. David Rockefeller er best kjent i visse kretser for sin rolle i dannelsen av den trilaterale kommisjonen i 1973. De "tre sidene", som organisasjonen henter navnet fra, er verdens tre viktigste sentre for politisk og økonomisk makt - USA, Europa og Japan. Den trilaterale kommisjonen utvider medlemskapet bare til sterkt innflytelsesrike mennesker fra de tre regionene. Mens den offisielt presenteres som en gruppe på 350 mennesker som ønsker å fremme internasjonal forståelse og globalisering, representerer den trilaterale kommisjonen en "ny kabal" som ønsker å fremme de økonomiske interessene av noen av de rikeste medlemmene. Det er kreditert med stor innflytelse som fungerer på i stor grad hemmelighetsfulle måter, og har vært gjenstand for konspirasjonsteorier om global bankvirksomhet. Nå på slutten av 80 -tallet er David Rockefeller det gjenværende barnet til John D. Rockefeller Jr. og Abby Greene Aldrich , datteren til senator Nelson W. David er verdt 2,5 milliarder dollar, noe som gjør ham til den 215. rikeste personen i verden.


David Rockefeller

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David Rockefeller, (født 12. juni 1915, New York, New York, USA - død 20. mars 2017, Pocantico Hills, New York), amerikansk bankmann og filantrop som var den yngste av de fem sønnene til John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

Han mottok en B.S. grad fra Harvard University (1936), tok utdannelse i økonomi ved Harvard og ved London School of Economics, og tok deretter en doktorgrad. grad fra University of Chicago (1940). Etter tjeneste i den amerikanske hæren under andre verdenskrig (1942–45) begynte han i 1946 i staben i Chase National Bank of New York, hvorav hans morbror, Winthrop W. Aldrich, var styreleder. Han steg jevnt og trutt i hierarkiet for å bli senior visepresident i 1952 og var medvirkende til sammenslåingen (1955) av Chase National og Bank of the Manhattan Company som resulterte i Chase Manhattan Bank. Hans fremvekst i den sammenslåtte institusjonen ble begrenset i 1969 da han ble styreleder (1969–81) og administrerende direktør (1969–80). Hans spesialitet ble internasjonal bankvirksomhet, og han var en kjent skikkelse for ministre og statsoverhoder i forskjellige land rundt om i verden, så vel som for sjefer for multinasjonale selskaper. I 1973 grunnla Rockefeller Trilateral Commission, en privat internasjonal organisasjon som er designet for å konfrontere utfordringene med globalisering og for å oppmuntre til større samarbeid mellom USA og dets viktigste allierte (Canada, Japan og landene i Vest -Europa). Han deltok og bidro økonomisk til Bilderberg-konferansen, et årlig tre-dagers møte med omtrent 100 av Europas og Nord-Amerikas mest innflytelsesrike bankfolk, økonomer, politikere og embetsmenn.

Redaktørene for Encyclopaedia Britannica Denne artikkelen ble sist revidert og oppdatert av Adam Augustyn, administrerende redaktør, referanseinnhold.


David Rockefeller ’s Wife, Children, Networth & More

David Rockefeller, bankmannen med det kjente etternavnet som er kjent for sin mangeårige tilknytning til Chase Manhattan Corporation, er død 101 år gammel.

Rockefeller fungerte som styreleder og administrerende direktør gjennom 1970 -årene på Chase Manhattan, ellers kjent som "Davids bank."

Chase Manhattan hadde lenge vært kjent som Rockefeller -banken, selv om familien aldri eide mer enn 5 prosent av aksjene, ifølge NY Times.

Davids arbeid gjorde ham til en styrke i globale økonomiske anliggender og i sitt lands utenrikspolitikk. Bankmannen og filantropen hadde stor innflytelse over hele verden enda lenger da han spredte evangeliet om amerikansk kapitalisme.

David ble født 12. juni 1915 i New York City, den yngste av seks, og vokste opp i en av de rikeste og mektigste familiene i landets historie. Hans bestefar John D. Rockefeller, grunnla Standard Oil Company på 1800 -tallet og bygde en formue som gjorde ham til Amerikas første milliardær.

Den privilegerte David og søsknene hans vokste opp i tider der foreldrene kledde seg til middag. Faren John D. Rockefeller Jr., - var den eneste sønnen til oljetitanen, han viet sitt liv til filantropi. mens moren hans, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, var datter av Nelson Aldrich, en velstående senator fra Rhode Island.

David gikk på Lincoln School på Manhattan og studerte ved Harvard og mottok sin B.S. i 1936. Senere tilbrakte han et år ved London School of Economics. Han fikk en doktorgrad i økonomi fra University of Chicago i 1940.

To år senere meldte han seg inn i hæren der han tjenestegjorde i Nord -Afrika og Frankrike i andre verdenskrig. Han ble utskrevet i 1945. Før sin hærperiode hadde han fungert som sekretær for Fiorello H. La Guardia, New Yorks liberale republikanske ordfører.

Rockefeller begynte sin bankkarriere i 1946 som assisterende leder i Chase National Bank. Selv etter at han trakk seg fra aktiv ledelse i 1981, fortsatte Rockefeller å tjene Chase som leder av dets internasjonale rådgivende råd og fungere som bankens utenlandske diplomat.

Sent i livet viet Mr. Rockefeller seg stadig mer til filantropi. I 2002, 87 år gammel, var han den første i tre generasjoner av Rockefellers som publiserte en selvbiografi.

Margaret McGrath og David Rockefeller giftet seg i 1940. De var gift i 56 år før hun gikk bort i 1996. De to hadde seks barn sammen: David Jr., Abby, Neva, Margaret, Richard og Eileen.

Margaret McGrath, også kjent som Peggy, ble født 28. september 1915. Faren hennes, Francis Sims McGrath, var partner i et fremtredende advokatfirma på Wall Street. Moren hennes var Neva McGrath, og hun hadde også en bror, Gordon Randolph McGrath.

Hun var student ved Chapin School i New York. Margaret McGrath møtte mannen sin på en dans, da han var nyutdannet på Harvard, omtrent syv år før hun giftet seg.

Peggy fungerte som styreleder ved Maine Coast Heritage Trust i mange år hun jobbet på vegne av bevaring av jordbruksland, American Farmland Trust, New York Botanical Garden og New York Philharmonic.

I følge hennes nekrolog ga hun også betydelige bidrag til Lincoln Center for Performing Arts og New York Philharmonic og var tillitsmann fra 1953 til 1970.

Peggy og mannen hennes som ble store kunstsamlere, egne verdsatte malerier - av Cézanne, Gauguin, Matisse, Picasso - ble lånt ut til museet permanent.

Paret fortsatte å samle kunst, inkludert hundrevis av malerier samt verk i farget glass, porselen, forstenet tre og møbler.

Peggy McGrath Rockefeller, en dedikert naturverner, døde 80 år 26. mars 1996. Hun var kjent for å ha ledet en lav profil.

1. David Jr., ble født 24. juli 1941. Han har tjent i mange av familieinstitusjonene, inkludert Rockefeller Family & amp Associates og Rockefeller Financial Services. Han er gift med Susan Cohn Rockefeller.

2. Abby Rockefeller som ble født i 1943, er kjent som økolog og feminist. Hun er kjent som den mest opprørske datteren på grunn av hennes beundring av Fidel Castro.

3. Neva Rockefeller også kjent som Neva Goodwin ble født 1. juni 1944. Økonomen og filantropen har fungert som direktør for tillitsmann for Global Development and Environment Institute og nestleder i Rockefeller Brothers Fund og direktør for Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors. Hun giftet seg med Bruce Mazlish som hun hadde to barn med.

4. Margaret Rockefeller også kjent som Peggy Dulany ble født i 1947. Peggy som ble uteksaminert med utmerkelser i 1969 fra Radcliffe College og tok en mastergrad og doktorgrad fra Harvards Graduate School of Education - jobbet med FN og og Ford Foundation. Hun har skilt seg to ganger. Hun og første ektemann, David Quattrone, er foreldre til en sønn, Michael Dulany Quattrone.

5. Richard Rockfeller ble født 20. januar 1949. Legen og filantropen døde i 2014 i en alder av 65 år etter at flyet hans styrtet mens han justerte hjem etter et besøk hos faren.

Richard som praktiserte og underviste i medisin i Portland, Maine - var gift med Nancy King som han hadde fire barn med.

6. Eileen Rockefeller Growald ble født i 1952. Også filantrop tok hun sin bachelorgrad fra Middlebury College i 1974 og sin master i tidlig barndomsutdanning fra Lesley College i tilknytning til Shady Hill School i 1976.

Hun og mannen, Paul Growald, har to barn.

Fra 2016 hadde forretningsmannen en estimert formue på 3 milliarder dollar ifølge Forbes. Han ble kåret til den 49. rikeste personen i verden.

Rockefeller, også kjent som 'bankers bankier', ifølge uttalelsen, skal ha donert nesten 2 milliarder dollar i løpet av sin levetid til forskjellige institusjoner, inkludert Rockefeller University, Harvard University og kunstmuseum.

I 2005, for sin nittiårsdag, lovet han å donere $ 5 millioner i året til Museum of Modern Art, og testamentere ytterligere 100 millioner dollar når han dør.

I 90 -årene reiste han mer enn halve året på vegne av Chase eller grupper som Council on Foreign Relations og Trilateral Commission. I 2005, da han ble intervjuet på kontorene ved Rockefeller Center, hadde han forblitt fysisk aktiv og jobbet med en trener i senterets sportsklubb.

Hans største løfte kom imidlertid i 2006, da han kunngjorde at han ville gi 225 millioner dollar til Rockefeller Brothers Fund, som han startet med brødrene John, Nelson, Laurance og Winthrop, alle nå avdøde.

Rockefeller døde i søvne hjemme i Pocantico Hills, New York av hjertesvikt.


Hemmelige forbindelser, hemmelige forbindelser, hemmelige lenker

David RockefellerFamilien hadde mange hemmeligheter. Det var bevis på at familien var involvert Rockefeller i noen av de viktigste politiske beslutningene i amerikansk historie, om deres dype og mystiske forbindelse med CIA. De Rockefellers hadde også forbindelser til mange politikere, i USA og verden, og mange flere mørke og mistenkelige ting. David Rockefeller døde, men familien hans har fortsatt enorm rikdom, og de trekker mange tråder.

Rockefeller familien var ekstremt hatet på begynnelsen av 1900 -tallet, og av en grunn! De måtte ansette flere vakter for å beskytte dem i leilighetene sine fordi folk kalte dem tyver, mordere av kvinner og barn, komplette løgnere og manipulatorer, etc.

Familien ble anklaget for skrupelløs berikelse. De trodde ikke på minimallønn og de mente at hver arbeider, mann, kvinne eller barn, skulle tjene så mye som de er verdt. Videre levde arbeiderne i frykt etter at de sendte væpnede menn for å stoppe et opprør i Ludlow, der de drepte elleve barn, to kvinner og et par menn.

Siden de hadde en dårlig historie med arbeiderne, trengte de gode nyheter i media. Derfor startet de sitt eget magasin og slo seg sammen med en innflytelsesrik forlegger Hearst, for å publisere gode ting om Rockefellerer og lyver om sine rivaler.


David Rockefeller - Historie

John fortsatte deretter med å grunnlegge Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research (nå kalt Rockefeller University) for å stimulere studiet av sykdom og forebygging av det. Mange teknikker født fra institusjonen har siden transformert biokjemi og medisin, inkludert behandling av lungebetennelse og hjernehinnebetennelse.

En annen viktig handling kom i 1902, da John opprettet General Education Board i et forsøk på å støtte utdanning i USA "uavhengig av rase, kjønn eller tro", med spesiell vekt på å fremme høyere utdanning. Så kom selvfølgelig Rockefeller Foundation, en institusjon John opprettet i 1913 for å "fremme menneskehetens velvære over hele verden". Det har gjort akkurat det og donert millioner til å fremme utdanning, folkehelse, vitenskapelig utvikling, kunst, sosial forskning og mer. Listen over organisasjoner og årsaker hjulpet av stiftelsen er intet mindre enn forbløffende.

Til tross for kritikken som omgav Johns karriere - inkludert forskjellige anklager om skatteunndragelse - var hans vane med veldedig å gi en som begynte lenge før han ble rik. Fra sin aller første lønnskasse begynte John å donere regelmessig til sin lokale baptistkirke, en søndagsskole og en afroamerikansk kirke. Det er derfor vanskelig å nekte for at det var hans religiøse overbevisning (i stedet for, for eksempel, et forsøk på å unngå skatt)
drev hans altruisme.

"Kanskje vi lever i en så sekulær tidsalder at vi ikke forstår hva slags kristendom han holdt seg til", forklarte Cox. "La oss si det ganske grovt: du tjener 10 dollar, du gir bort de tre første, og det begynte veldig tidlig i livet hans som ung, da han begynte å bygge opp formuen. Jeg tror han virkelig trodde at det var den velstående mannens plikt i kristen forstand å spre sin formue - og på nyttige måter - å hjelpe andre.

"Han legemliggjorde det mange ville kalle protestantismens viktigste dyder - du vet, hardt arbeid, å stå opp tidlig, bare ha en kone, en standardfamilie, religiøs og også med en sterk filantropi. Han snakket ganske mye om dette: at den rike mannen ikke skal dø rik, den rike skal dø etter å ha gjort gode ting med den rikdommen han har skapt. ”

Ned linjen
Født 29. januar 1874, skulle John Jr følge i farens fotspor og sette sitt eget betydelige preg på verden. John Jr ble oppvokst i Cleveland sammen med sine tre søstre, og ble lite imponert over farens enorme rikdom. Etter endt utdanning fra Brown University jobbet han ved Standard Oil -hovedkvarteret i en tid med betydelig omveltning. Følgelig følte han seg misfornøyd, og John Jr tok et sprang og forlot næringslivet for å fokusere utelukkende på filantropi.

Til tross for hans engasjement for altruisme, begynte den ofte foranderlige strømmen av opinionen å snu i 1913 da rundt 9000 kullgruvearbeidere som jobbet for det Rockefeller-eide Colorado Fuel and Iron Company bestemte seg for å slå til og krevde bedre lønn, timer og overnatting. Affæren ble snart voldelig, med arbeiderfamilier som ble kastet ut av hjemmene sine og tvunget til å bo i provisoriske telt i løpet av en hard vinter. I 1914 slo tragedien til da mer enn 40 mennesker, inkludert 11 barn, ble skutt og drept av private sikkerhetsstyrker.

John Jr ble klandret av avisene, arvingen befant seg snart foran kongressen, og Rockefeller -navnet fikk kanskje sitt største slag. I årevis etter var John Jr involvert i kontroverser, men fortsatte sitt filantropiske arbeid med velbehag, med fokus på å gjenoppbygge ryktet hans en god gjerning om gangen. Noen slike gjerninger inkluderer å opprette det verdensberømte Rockefeller Center, donere landet som senere skulle bli omgjort til FNs hovedkvarter og restaurere Colonial Williamsburg. I tillegg til å gi utrolig sjenerøse bidrag til ulike årsaker, kom imidlertid kanskje John Jrs dypeste avtrykk i verden gjennom arbeidet til barna hans.

De fem Rockefeller -brødrene. Venstre til høyre: David, Winthrop, John D Rockefeller III, Nelson og Laurance

En familie uten like
Mens Abby Rockefeller forfulgte veldedig arbeid ut av det offentlige rampelyset, skaffet hennes fem brødre seg et rykte hver for seg, og flettet gjennom de sammenkoblede sfærene virksomhet, politikk og filantropi på en måte som er ulik noen familie i amerikansk historie.

Den eldste av brødrene, John III, viet sitt liv til utenrikssaker og filantropi. Inspirert av en reise rundt i verden etter endt utdanning, utviklet John III en dyp interesse for Asia som resulterte i opprettelsen av Asia Society og Council on Economic and Cultural Affairs. John III var også ansvarlig for Population Council, den første slike organisasjonen som brakte spørsmål om overbefolkning til syne, og Lincoln Center, nå et av verdens ledende scenekunstsentre. John III grunnla og støttet også mange frivillige organisasjoner før hans utidige død i en bilulykke i 1978.

Nelson var kanskje den høyeste profilen blant søsken. Til tross for farens forsøk på å innpode ham verdiene om tilbakeholdenhet og beskjedenhet, hadde Nelson alltid store planer og snakket om å bli president fra barndommen. Etter en tid i Chase Manhattan Bank ledet han utviklingen av Rockefeller Center gjennom en tumultfylt økonomisk periode, og til slutt fungerte som president. Nelson gikk deretter inn i politikken og forandret New Yorks skyline gjennom de mange byggeprosjektene han startet mens han fungerte som guvernør i New York i fire perioder mellom 1953 og 1973. Deretter tjente han som visepresident i USA under president Gerald Ford mellom 1974 og 1977.

Laurance hadde også stor innvirkning på New York, men via Wall Street, som en pioner innen venturekapitalisme. I løpet av tiårene på New York Stock Exchange investerte Laurance i hundrevis av oppstart som fokuserte på elektronikk, luftfart, datamaskiner og bioteknologi. Laurance hadde et talent for å ane det neste store, som det kan sees i hans tidlige investeringer i Apple og Intel. Han var også en ivrig miljøforkjemper og var med på å etablere og utvide en rekke nasjonalparker i hele USA, fra Wyoming til Hawaii.

Lektioner i beskjedenhet jobbet for Winthrop, som ikke var villig til å bare valse seg til toppen basert på familienavnet alene. I stedet begynte han sin karriere som lærling som jobbet i familiens oljefelt. Etter andre verdenskrig gikk Winthrop inn i politikken og ble berømt for den dype kulturelle og økonomiske endringen han drev frem i delstaten Arkansas mens han fungerte som guvernør mellom 1967 og 1971. Han introduserte statens første minstelønn og informasjonsfriheten, og skjerpet forsikringslovgivningen, for bare å nevne noen eksempler.

Den yngste broren, David, var en mektig styrke på Wall Street, i tillegg til en utrolig innflytelsesrik person som krysset samfunnets høyeste nivå. Etter endt utdanning fra London School of Economics tok David doktorgraden ved University of Chicago i 1940. Davids første jobb, som innebar å skrive brev til borgmesteren i New York, stoppet opp - som så mange andre - som et resultat av andre verdenskrig. Da han valgte å gi avkall på bruken av familienavnet, meldte David seg som privatist og steg til kaptein under hans tjeneste i den amerikanske hæren.

Rockefellers endret karakteren av å gjøre forretninger, og etablerte effektivitet som grunnlag og avfall som anathema for enhver bedrift

Etter krigen meldte David seg inn i selskapet der han skulle bli i hele sin profesjonelle karriere: Chase Manhattan Bank. Gitt at onkelen Winthrop Aldrich var styreleder i banken og hans far og bestefar var dens største aksjonærer, ble David ikke overraskende ansett for å være noe annet enn en bortskjemt rik gutt ved ankomst. Imidlertid beviste han snart sin verdi, mens vanen med å få den offentlige t -banen til jobb hver dag bidro til å slippe unna den bortskjemte statusen. Hans harde arbeid gjorde at han tok sin egen vei til toppen, ble med-administrerende direktør i 1960 og eneste konsernsjef i 1969.

I løpet av sin tid ved roret brukte David sitt verdensomspennende nettverk for å øke bankens utenlandske filialer fra 11 til 73, med Chase Bank som den første vestlige banken som åpnet filialer i Kina og Russland, og sikret sin posisjon som en virkelig global institusjon. David var også ansvarlig for å gi banken ny energi innenfra, og opprettet HR-, planleggings- og markedsføringsavdelinger ved hjelp av ingen ringere enn ‘lederen’, Peter Drucker. Selv om 1970 -tallet viste seg å være vanskelig, hadde David rollen som administrerende direktør til han trakk seg i 1981.

Da David begynte i Chase Bank i 1946, var det en institusjon på 4,8 milliarder dollar. I 1981 var det verdt 76,2 milliarder dollar i eiendeler. "Vel, han var banken for alle bankfolk", kommenterte Cox. Som et resultat av to enorme fusjoner er banken i dag den største i USA.

Forandrer verden
Det er spørsmål å stille om hvordan en mann - eller familie - muligens kan samle en så utrolig rikdom som Rockefellers. Og ja, det er sider ved Johns strategi som var aggressive og lite konkurransedyktige. Denne tilnærmingen til fusjoner og oppkjøp er imidlertid en som siden har blitt en standard forretningspraksis - han var bare den første som gjorde det med en slik suksess. Gjennom sin vilje til å gjøre ting annerledes, la John grunnlaget for en industri som er integrert i den globale økonomien, og et handelsområde som har ansporet utvikling og innovasjon til utallige andre.

I en tid da olje var dyrt og mye av det var bortkastet, gjorde John produksjonsprosessen langt mer effektiv og kostnadseffektiv, og gjorde derved parafin rimelig for massene - så mye at den snart overtok hval- og kullolje (og til og med elektrisitet for en tid) som drivstoff, belyser Amerika gate for gate. Johns oppfinnsomhet førte også til utvikling av rundt 300 biprodukter fra olje, alt fra maling og smøreoljer til bedøvelsesmidler. I denne forbindelse endret han arten av å gjøre forretninger, og etablerte effektivitet som grunnlinje og avfall som
anathema for ethvert foretak.

"Han kom ikke fra virksomheten. Han var på veldig mange måter-jeg antar at dette gjør historien ganske heroisk-en selvlaget mann ”, sa Cox. Faktisk var John den arketypiske legemliggjørelsen av den amerikanske drømmen. Og mens han revolusjonerte forretningsstrategien og oljeindustrien, fortsatte barnebarna hans, spesielt Laurance og David, med å forme det amerikanske finansmarkedet gjennom deres sterke følelse av fremoverlent tankegang.

Mer bemerkelsesverdig er fortsatt effekten Rockefellers hadde på utdanning, medisinsk forskning, likestilling, samfunnsvitenskap og kunst. Deres støtte har sildret ned til så mange forskjellige organisasjoner, og hjulpet millioner på millioner på veien. John alene ga bort $ 540 millioner i løpet av livet, men den sanne kostnaden for familiens pågående filantropi er ganske enkelt ukjent.

Viktige hendelser i Rockefeller familiehistorie:

1839: John D Rockefeller ble født på en gård i Richford, New York 8. juli

1859: Med 2000 dollar i midler dannet John et partnerskap med Maurice B Clark

1863: De to partnerne gikk inn i oljevirksomheten og opprettet et selskap som heter Andrews, Clark & ​​amp Co

1870: Standard Oil Company ble opprettet med en kapital på 1 million dollar

1874: John Rockefellers sønn, John Jr, ble født i Cleveland, Ohio

1890: Johns donasjon på 600 000 dollar bidro til å finansiere etableringen av University of Chicago

1901: Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (nå Rockefeller University) ble grunnlagt

1906: John III, sønnen til John Jr., ble født i New York City 21. mars

1911: Høyesterett beordret oppløsningen av Standard Oil Company

1915: David Rockefeller, det yngste barnet til John Jr., ble født i New York City

1946: David begynte i Chase Bank som assisterende leder i utenriksbankavdelingen

1969: David ble utnevnt til styreleder og administrerende direktør i Chase Manhattan Bank

1994: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies åpnet ved Harvard University

2000: Rockefeller -familiens eierskap til Rockefeller Center endte etter å ha blitt solgt for 1,85 milliarder dollar

2017: David døde i en alder av 101 år i Upstate New York med en nettoverdi på 3,3 milliarder dollar


Tycoon John D. Rockefeller kunne ikke skjule sin fars svindler

Da han var barn, så John D. Rockefeller sin far telle pengene sine som han nektet å beholde i en bank og stablet kjærlig foran sin følelsesmessige sønn. Han praktiserte å aldri bære mindre enn $ 1000, og oljebaronen husket senere i livet, og han beholdt den i lommen. Han var i stand til å ta vare på seg selv, og var ikke redd for å bære pengene sine. ”

William Avery Rockefeller ’s sønn ville bli en av de rikeste mennene gjennom tidene. Berømt pengesulten snakket John D. beundrende om farens hauger med penger lenge etter at han hadde tjent en formue som ville ha overgått farens villeste drømmer. Men selv om sjefen for Standard Oil var stolt over å fortelle verden hvor han hadde fått sin egen takknemlighet for kalde harde kontanter, utelukket han alltid en detalj: hvor farens penger kom fra.

Faktisk hadde William ’s penger kommet fra en rekke skyggefulle forretningsforetak, fra å late som å være en døv og blind kjøpmann til å posere som lege for å hake patentmedisiner. Men etter hans stratosfæriske oppgang til høyden i Gilded Age -virksomheten, gjorde John D. Rockefeller alt han kunne for å bagatellisere foreldrenes bedrifter. Han var i sekstitallet før beskyldninger om farens uetiske forretningspraksis og mulig kriminell oppførsel kom tilbake for å forfølge ham anklager som utløste et løp om å finne ut sannheten om Rockefellers far.

Beskyldningene kom med lov av Ida Tarbell, den lattermilde journalisten som avslørte Standard Oil ’s hemmelige forretningspraksis, som inkluderte å kutte hemmelige avtaler for å presse konkurrentene. Som hjørnestein til hennes flerdelte utstillinger é in McClure ’s bladet, publiserte hun en todelt karakterstudie av John D. Rockefeller i 1905.

Ida M Tarbell var en ledende muckraker og kjent forfatter fra den progressive tiden på begynnelsen av 1900-tallet.

Artiklene malte et portrett av en mann besatt av penger — en skremmende, hemmelighetsfull skikkelse hvis personlighet ble vridd av ambisjoner. Men like sjokkerende som hennes portrett av en av USAs mest kjente menn var det hun skrev om faren hans. Tarbell anklaget William Avery Rockefeller for å ha opptrådt som lege og utnyttet andre for økonomisk vinning, og avslørt påstander om  rape og hestetyveri mot ham.

I barndommen til John D., skrev hun, hadde faren hans vært leder i alt som var hensynsløst og vilt i samfunnet, og ble klassifisert av den respektable og stødige som en farlig karakter som det uten tvil var mye av ble festet som ikke hørte til. William hadde forsvunnet i lange perioder i løpet av barndommen til John D. ’, skrev hun og forlot familien fattig og tvang dem til å flytte fra by til by.

John D. hadde brukt livet på å prøve å begrave sannheten om en slektning hvis handlinger truet hele imperiet han hadde jobbet så hardt med å bygge. Selv om han offentlig hevdet at han hadde bygget sin karriere på foreldrenes leksjoner, hadde han egentlig bare modellert seg selv etter den ene, hans strenge mor Eliza. Hun hadde for lengst blitt forlatt av William Avery Rockefeller, den frafalne mannen hun ikke hadde klart å reformere.

Mistenkt for å ha stjålet hest og til og med tiltalt for voldtekt i 1849, hadde William vært en ustabil farfigur. Men søk som Tarbell kanskje etter mannen med tilnavnet Devil Bill, og hun hadde ikke klart å spore ham utover John D.s unge voksen alder.

Oljemagnaten ble opprørt av det han så på som en malignering av faren. Selv om han vanligvis nektet å la være, var en journalist som viste ham historien fra Tarbell vitne til en sjelden sprekk i hans berømte finer. “Gifttungen til denne giftkvinnen, ” rant han. “What a wretched utterance from one calling herself a historian.”

Now the world knew the truth about William Rockefeller𠅋ut nobody knew where he was. His whereabouts were only exposed thanks to another news legend who despised Rockefeller and his business practices. Joseph Pulitzer, the news magnate who owned the Verden, sensed that exposing Rockefeller’s roots would not just humiliate the man, but sell more papers. Beginning in 1901, he offered an $8,000 reward—the equivalent of over $240,000 in modern dollars𠅏or anyone who could reveal the whereabouts of Rockefeller’s mysterious father.

Pulitzer sent star reporters across the country to try to track down William, but they came back empty-handed. Seven years later, in 1908, a Verden reporter named A.B. Macdonald finally got the scoop. But he was too late: William Rockefeller had died six months earlier.

That didn’t stop him from fleshing out the story of William Rockefeller in print. The article had even more bombshells about the magnates’ father: For years, he had lived under assumed names and was known as Dr. Levingston before his death. He “had a big jug of medicine and [he] treated all diseases from the same jug,” an associate recalled, remembering that the supposed doctor would laugh about his concoction magically being able to cure anyone willing to give him money.

The article also claimed that William Rockefeller had been a bigamist. During John D. Rockefeller’s childhood, he had lived with John D.’s mother, Eliza, but a mistress had lived under the same roof as a housekeeper. Eventually, he had remarried without obtaining a divorce, living a double life and splitting his time between two families. His new wife, Margaret Allen, ended up staying married to him for 50 years and did not realize he had not legally married her until after his death.

The accusations of quackery, rape and bigamy all flew in the face of the thrifty, wholesome image John D. Rockefeller had carefully crafted for years. They also represented serious moral outrages during a conservative era. But perhaps the most shocking accusation of all was that his sons had known his whereabouts for 25 years, and had been quietly supporting him.

This claim was vigorously denied by Frank Rockefeller, who called the story an “unqualified lie” in a statement. He stated that his father had been forced into seclusion “precisely to protect himself from being hounded by cranks and others who would break in upon the peace and quiet of his retired life.”

The story was true, however. The Rockefellers had known their father’s location for years and had been sending him money, perhaps in an effort to buy his silence. As for John D. Rockefeller, he ignored Pulitzer’s exposé and tried to move on—presumably eager for the public to forget his connection to𠅊nd similarities with𠅊 father who had no qualms about cheating others in the name of profit. He had spent a lifetime trying to escape his roots, and wasn’t about to stop now. 


What Really Happened to Michael Rockefeller

Asmat is, in its way, a perfect place. Everything you could possibly need is here. It’s teeming with shrimp and crabs and fish and clams. In the jungle there are wild pig, the furry, opossumlike cuscus, and the ostrichlike cassowary. And sago palm, whose pith can be pounded into a white starch and which hosts the larvae of the Capricorn beetle, both key sources of nutrition. The rivers are navigable highways. Crocodiles 15 feet long prowl their banks, and jet-black iguanas sun on uprooted trees. There are flocks of brilliant red-and-green parrots. Hornbills with five-inch beaks and blue necks.

And secrets, spirits, laws and customs, born of men and women who have been walled off by ocean, mountains, mud and jungle for longer than anyone knows.

Until 50 years ago, there were no wheels here. No steel or iron, not even any paper. There’s still not a single road or automobile. In its 10,000 square miles, there is but one airstrip, and outside of the main “city” of Agats, there isn’t a single cell tower. Here it’s hard to know where the water begins and the land ends, as the Arafura Sea’s 15-foot tides inundate the coast of southwest New Guinea, an invisible swelling that daily slides into this flat swamp and pushes hard against great outflowing rivers. It is a world of satiny, knee-deep mud and mangrove swamps stretching inland, a great hydroponic terrarium.

We were crossing the mouth of the Betsj River, a turbulent place of incoming tide and outrushing water, when the waves slammed and our 30-foot longboat rolled. I crawled forward, reached under a plastic tarp and fumbled blindly in my duffel for the Ziploc bag holding my satellite phone, and slipped it into my pocket. I hadn’t wanted to bring the phone, but at the last minute I’d thought how stupid it would be to die for want of a call. If Michael Rockefeller had had a radio when his catamaran overturned in this exact spot in 1961, he never would have disappeared.

The Rockefeller family (top: Michael is standing at the right). (Keystone / Hulton Archive / Getty Images) Michael Rockefeller’s travels to New Guinea ultimately took him beyond the reach of his famous family. (AP Images) Sauer is the son of Samut, whom colonial authorities killed in a 1958 raid—a prelude to the events that would ensnare Rockefeller. (Carl Hoffman) After he disappeared, ships, helicopters and airplanes were mobilized to search the swamps of the Asmat region. (Eliot Elisofon / Time Life Pictures /Getty Images) Kokai, the former head man of Pirien village, vividly recalled events before and after Rockefeller’s disappearance but maintained he knew nothing about it. (Carl Hoffman) An Asmat ancestor skull, often used as a pillow to keep the spirits at bay, has the lower jaw intact—unlike the skulls of those who have been headhunted. (Musee du Quai Branly / Scala / Art Resource, NY) In Pirien, Kokai dons traditional Asmat gear: Cuscus fur headband, nose-bone ornament, feathered bag and a bow and arrows. (Carl Hoffman) Family album: Men from Otsjanep and Pirien examine copies of photographs Michael Rockefeller took in the area in 1961. (Carl Hoffman) Michael's father, Nelson, faced the press. (Photo by Eliot Elisofon//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) On the Arafura Sea (from rear): the author’s boat pilot, Wilem Wilem’s assistant, Manu and the author’s interpreter, Amates. (Carl Hoffman) In Pirien: The author kneels (center) with members of the family of former head man Kokai (behind the author, in striped shirt). (Carl Hoffman) Custom revived: Villagers in Pirien and Jisar complete the roof on the new jeu, or men’s house, the government allowed them to build. (Carl Hoffman) Rockefeller was most impressed by the Asmat people’s ancestor poles, or bisj—elaborate, sexually suggestive signs that a death had yet to be avenged. (© The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY)

He was 23 years old, the privileged son of New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, seven months into the adventure of a lifetime that had transformed him from clean-cut student to bearded photographer and art collector. One moment his boat was being tossed by the waves, just as ours was, and the next he and his Dutch companion were clinging to an overturned hull. And then Rockefeller had swum for shore and vanished. No trace of him was ever found, despite a two-week search involving ships, airplanes, helicopters and thousands of locals prowling the coasts and jungle swamps. The fact that such a simple, banal thing had happened to him made what was happening to us feel all the more real. There would be no foreboding music. One bad wave and I’d be clinging to a boat in the middle of nowhere.

The official cause of Michael’s death was drowning, but there had long been a multitude of rumors. He’d been kidnapped and kept prisoner. He’d gone native and was hiding out in the jungle. He’d been consumed by sharks. He’d made it to shore, only to be killed and eaten by the local Asmat headhunters. The story had grown, become mythical. There had been an off-Broadway play about him, a novel, a rock song, even a television show in the 1980s hosted by Leonard Nimoy.

I’d been fascinated with the story ever since I first saw a photo of Michael on his first trip to what was then called Netherlands New Guinea. In it he is kneeling, holding his 35-millimeter camera under the close eyes of natives. He was working on a documentary film in the highlands of the Great Baliem Valley. That film, Dead Birds, was a groundbreaking ethnographic examination of a barely contacted, stone-age culture that engaged in constant ritual warfare. The mountains, the mist, the naked men yelling and screaming and attacking one another with spears and bow and arrow, had fascinated and entranced me, as had the whole idea of contact between people from dramatically different worlds. In my 20s, I’d tried to get there, but it was too expensive for my young budget, so instead I’d ended up, briefly, in Borneo.

I spent hours looking at that photo, wondering what Michael had seen and felt, wondering what had really happened to him, wondering if I might be able to solve the mystery. That he had been kidnapped or had run away didn’t make sense. If he had drowned, well, that was that. Except he’d been attached to flotation aids. As for sharks, they rarely attacked men in these waters and no trace of him had been found. Which meant that if he hadn’t perished during his swim, there had to be more.

There had to have been some collision, some colossal misunderstanding. The Asmat people were warriors drenched in blood, but Dutch colonial authorities and missionaries had already been in the area for almost a decade by the time Michael disappeared, and the Asmat had never killed a white. If he had been murdered, it struck to the heart of a clash between Westerners and Others that had been ongoing ever since Columbus first sailed to the New World. I found it compelling that in this remote corner of the world the Rockefellers and their power and money had been impotent, had come up with nothing. How was that even possible?

I started poking around in Dutch colonial archives and the records of Dutch missionaries, and I found more than I’d ever imagined. After the ships and planes and helicopters had gone home, a series of new investigations took place. There were pages and pages of reports, cables and letters discussing the case, sent by the Dutch government, Asmat-speaking missionaries on the ground and Catholic Church authorities—and most of it had never been made public. Men who had been key participants in those investigations had remained silent for 50 years, but they were still alive and finally willing to talk.

On February 20, 1957, in a city of concrete and steel 6,000 times bigger than the largest hamlet in Asmat, Nelson Rockefeller introduced the world to a new kind of seeing. He was 49 years old, square-jawed and ambitious, the grandson of Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller. At the time of Nelson’s birth, which was announced on the front page of the New York Times, John D. was the richest man on earth, with a fortune estimated at $900 million. In two years, Nelson would become the governor of New York. In 1960, he would run for the presidency. In 1974, he would become vice president of the United States.

Inside a family-owned, four-story townhouse with elegantly curving bay windows at 15 West 54th Street—just around the corner from the Museum of Modern Art, which his mother, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, had helped found—guests began arriving at 8:30 p.m. to a private reception heralding the first exhibit of the Museum of Primitive Art, which would open to the public the following day. The things they were celebrating came from a world away. A carved paddle from Easter Island. The elongated, exaggerated face of a wooden mask from Nigeria. Pre-Columbian Aztec and Mayan stone figures from Mexico. Around these objects were no ethnographic dioramas, no depictions of African huts or canoes and fishing nets. They rested atop stark white cylinders and cubes, illuminated by track lighting against white walls. They were to be viewed as works of art.

Nelson was dressed in the height of New York tribal finery: black tie. As the guests nibbled canapés and sipped wine, he told them that his new museum was “the first. of its kind in the world”—dedicated exclusively to primitive art. “We do not want to establish primitive art as a separate kind of category,” he said, “but rather to integrate it, with all its missing variety, into what is already known to the arts of man. Our aim will always be to select objects of outstanding beauty whose rare quality is the equal of works shown in other museums of art throughout the world, and to exhibit them so that everyone may enjoy them in the fullest measure.”

Michael Rockefeller was just 18 years old that night, and it’s easy to imagine the power the event had for him. His father’s pride over the new museum, the exotic beauty and pull of the objects, the cream of New York’s elite admiring them. Michael was tall and slender, clean-shaven and square-jawed like his father, with thick, black-rimmed glasses. He’d grown up with his two sisters and two brothers in the family townhouse in Manhattan and on the Rockefeller estate in Westchester County. As Abby Rockefeller had done with Nelson, so Nelson did with Michael, schooling him in art the way other boys were schooled in baseball, taking him to art dealers on Saturday afternoons. His twin sister, Mary, remembered how they loved to watch their father rearrange his art.

As he neared the end of his four years at Harvard, Michael was, in the words of a friend, “a quiet, artistic spirit.” And he was torn. His father expected his son to be like him—to pursue a career in one of the family enterprises, banking or finance, and indulge his artistic passions on the side. Michael graduated cum laude from Harvard with a B.A. in history and economics, but he yearned for something else. He’d traveled widely, working on his father’s ranch in Venezuela for a summer, visiting Japan in 1957, and he’d been surrounded not just by art, but by primitive art. And how could he make his “primitive art”-collecting father prouder than by going to its source and plunging in deeper than the forceful governor and presidential candidate had ever dreamed?

At Harvard he met the filmmaker Robert Gardner, who was beginning work on Dead Birds, and signed on as the sound engineer. “Mike was very quiet and very modest,” said Karl Heider, who as a Harvard graduate student in anthropology had shared a tent on the 1961 film expedition with him. In the evenings, Heider was astonished to see the wealthiest member of the team darning his socks.

But Michael was ambitious, too. “Michael’s father had put him on the board of his museum,” Heider told me, “and Michael said he wanted to do something that hadn’t been done before and to bring a major collection to New York.” He had already corresponded with Adrian Gerbrands, deputy director of the Dutch National Museum of Ethnology, who’d recently begun fieldwork in Asmat. The region was home to people who lived as hunter-gatherers and yet produced carvings of astounding beauty. “Asmat,” Heider said, “was the obvious choice.”

Michael made a scouting trip there during a mid-May break in filming. Only in the mid-1950s had a few Dutch missionaries and government officials begun pacifying the Asmat, but even by 1961 many had never seen a Westerner, and inter-village warfare and headhunting remained common. “Now this is wild and somehow more remote country than what I have ever seen before,” Michael wrote. In many ways, the Asmat world at the time was a mirror image of every taboo of the West. In some areas, men had sex with each other. They occasionally shared wives. In bonding rituals, they sometimes drank one another’s urine. They killed their neighbors, and they hunted human heads and ate human flesh.

They weren’t savages, however, but biologically modern men with all the brainpower and manual dexterity necessary to fly a 747, with a language so complex it had 17 tenses, whose isolated universe of trees, ocean, river and swamp constituted their whole experience. They were pure subsistence hunter-gatherers who lived in a world of spirits—spirits in the rattan and in the mangrove and sago trees, in the whirlpools, in their own fingers and noses. Every villager could see them, talk to them. There was their world, and there was the kingdom of the ancestors across the seas, known as Safan, and an in-between world, and all were equally real. No death just skjedde even sickness came at the hand of the spirits because the spirits of the dead person were jealous of the living and wanted to linger and cause mischief. The Asmat lived in a dualistic world of extremes, of life and death, where one balanced the other. Only through elaborate sacred feasts and ceremonies and reciprocal violence could sickness and death be kept in check by appeasing and chasing those ancestors back to Safan, back to the land beyond the sea.

Expert woodcarvers in a land without stone, the Asmat crafted ornate shields, paddles, drums, canoes and ancestor poles, called bisj, embodying the spirit of an ancestor. The bisj poles were 20-foot-high masterpieces of stacked men interwoven with crocodiles and praying mantises and other symbols of headhunting. The poles were haunting, expressive, alive, and each carried an ancestor’s name. The carvings were memorial signs to the dead, and to the living, that their deaths had not been forgotten, that the responsibility to avenge them was still alive.

Map of the Asmat Cultural Region. (Guilbert Gates)

The Asmat saw themselves in the trees—just as a man had feet and legs and arms and a head, so did the sago tree, which had roots and branches and a fruit, a seed on top. Just as the fruit of the sago tree nourished new trees, so the fruit of men, their heads, nourished young men. They all knew some version of the story of the first brothers in the world, one of the Asmat creation myths, in which the older brother cajoles the younger into killing him and placing his head against the groin of a young man. The skull nourishes the initiate’s growth, even as he takes the victim’s name and becomes him. It was through that story that men learned how to headhunt and how to butcher a human body and how to use that skull to make new men from boys and to keep life flowing into the world.

The completion of a bisj pole usually unleashed a new round of raids revenge was taken and balance restored, new heads obtained—new seeds to nourish the growth of boys into men—and the blood of the victims rubbed into the pole. The spirit in the pole was made complete. The villagers then engaged in sex, and the poles were left to rot in the sago fields, fertilizing the sago and completing the cycle.

Anything outside of the tangible immediacy of what the Asmats could see had to come from that spirit world—it was the only comprehensible explanation. An airplane was opndettaji—a passing-over-canoe-of-the-spirits. White men came from the land beyond the sea, the same place the spirits lived, and so must be super beings.

Michael did not plunge into this realm a lone adventurer he was a Rockefeller, not to mention a trustee of the Museum of Primitive Art. His traveling party included, among others, Gerbrands and René Wassing, a government anthropologist assigned to him from the Dutch New Guinea Department of Native Affairs.

Michael’s field notes from his first trip to Asmat and the letters he wrote reveal a deepening seriousness regarding his collecting. Before his second expedition, he laid out “objectives themes of investigation criterion for stylistic variation.” He wanted to produce books and mount the biggest exhibition of Asmat art ever.

Michael returned to Asmat in October 1961. Wassing joined him again and in Agats he badgered a Dutch patrol officer into selling him his homemade catamaran, into which Michael stuffed a wealth of barter goods—steel axes, fishing hooks and line, cloth and tobacco, to which the Asmats had become addicted. He and Wassing, accompanied by two Asmat teenagers, visited 13 villages over three weeks.

Michael collected everywhere he went and in quantity, loading up on drums, bowls, bamboo horns, spears, paddles, shields. He was most impressed by the bisj poles. With no sense of irony, he wrote: “This was one kind of object that seemed to me inviolate for the encroachment of western commercialism upon Asmat art.” In the southern village of Omadesep he’d bought a set of four on his first trip they now stand in the Michael C. Rockefeller Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which absorbed the collections of the Museum of Primitive Art after it closed in 1976.


David Rockefeller Auction Preview: A Personal History of My Grandfather's Table

This week the historic Peggy & David Rockefeller Collection will be sold at Christie's. The collection, comprised of over 1500 works of masterpiece paintings, decorative objects, porcelain and furniture, is predicted to bring in over 600 million with the proceeds donated entirely to 12 charities the family has chosen over decades. The sale will be a tribute to American philanthropy, as well as a testament to DR's love of beauty, life and time with family and friends, which often centered around a gorgeous dining table set with flowers, Italian linen and 18th century silver.

A great collector, but also a great believer of making such treasures a part of daily life, my grandfather would enjoy meals with friends and family on 18th century sets of china, with beautiful linens, flower arrangements and of course pieces of silver that bear a history just as lovely as the pieces themselves, shining on a dinner table. DR was quite close to his Aunt Lucy Aldrich (sister of his mother Abby Aldrich Rockefeller), and frequently recounted stories of her intrepid spirit, feisty nature and her great love of porcelain and silver. Many of these treasures are from Lucy's estate, and it is fair to say that DR inherited the adoration of a beautiful table setting from her.

A George II Silver dish from the David & Peggy Rockefeller Collection

A particularly charming artificat in David's collection, inherited from Aunt Lucy, is a shallow circular dish which is based on a Chinese Export service. Made in London in 1741 by silversmith Isabel Pero, the bowl was from the Lucy Aldrich estate and played a significant part of weekly meals. It often held ice cream for Sunday lunch or Floating Island desert made by his wonderful staff, (who were like family themselves). The importance of the bowl became even more enhanced as the history unfolded.

Not just a valuable piece from a beloved and influential Aunt Lucy, the fact that the piece was crafted by a female silversmith is revelatory as d uring the 18th century there were very few women in the business. The 3rd wife of John Pero, Isabel Pero took up the enterprise after her husband passed away and carried on with a flourishing shop. Isabel's work proved to stand the test of time to be sure. "I have always thought this dish, which we acquired from Aunt Lucy's estate, to be one of the most beautiful silver pieces we own. The fluting is especially appealing, and it is a very good size for serving dessert." - David Rockefeller. (D. Fennimore et al., s. 402).

A George III Silver Teapot from the David & Peggy Rockefeller Collection

Teatime was often a daily essential on the calendar for DR, and strong earl grey tea would be served around 4pm in a George III silver teapot, along with oatmeal cookies. The teapot was crafted by another female silversmith by the name of Hester Bateman, who was dubbed 'Queen of Silversmithing' and ran a prolific silver workshop in the 18th century. Inheriting the business from her husband, Hester created one of the first ‘mass market’ business of the time. The venture stayed in the family as it was handed down to her son and daughter in law Anne Bateman carried on the tradition of women in business. The George III silver teapot with the Bateman mark in the collection is a stunning yet understated piece.

During the 18 th century, there were four prominent female silversmiths and two are represented in the sale with pieces from the workshops of Hester and Isabel. It seems fitting to have such a strong representation of women in business as David was always surrounded by strong women. His mother founded the Museum of Modern Art, his Aunt Lucy was known for being a fearless world traveler as a single woman, and his wife Peggy started a cattle breeding business. The representation of female entrepreneurs in the collection is certainly no surprise.

The wonderful lesson that DR instilled in his family was that life is to be enjoyed, family cherished and to whom much is given, much must be given back. This auction of beautiful art, objects and furniture will be a testament to these lessons, and certainly a visually beautiful one.

I’m an equestrian athlete, designer and New Yorker. I travel internationally as a competitive show jumper and am passionate about the sport. I graduated from Columbia…

I’m an equestrian athlete, designer and New Yorker. I travel internationally as a competitive show jumper and am passionate about the sport. I graduated from Columbia University with a degree in political science and launched a brand of clothing and equestrian inspired handbags in 2011. Glad to share my views and observations here as a Forbes Contributor.


From a China Traveler

Given China's vastness, it was only due to the remarkable thoughtfulness of our hosts that the six members of our Chase group were able to see and experience so much during just ten days in Peking, Sian, Shanghai and Canton. In terms of simple geographic expanse, a week and a half visit to China is something equivalent to trying to see New York City in less than one and a half minutes.

One is impressed immediately by the sense of national harmony. From the loud patriotic music at the border onward, there is very real and pervasive dedication to Chairman Mao and Maoist principles. Whatever the price of the Chinese Revolution, it has obviously succeeded not only in producing more efficient and dedicated administration, but also in fostering high morale and community of purpose.

General economic and social progress is no less impressive. Only 25 years ago, starvation and abject poverty are said to have been more the rule than the exception in China. Today, almost everyone seems to enjoy adequate, if Spartan, food, clothing and housing. Streets and homes are spotlessly clean, and medical care greatly improved. Crime, drug addiction, prostitution and venereal disease have been virtually eliminated. Doors are routinely left unlocked. Rapid strides are being made in agriculture, reforestation, industry and education. Eighty per cent of school‐age children now attend primary school, compared with 20 per cent just twenty years ago.

Each step of the trip was choreographed precisely by our hosts and, though virtually all our requests were granted, we clearly saw what they wanted us to. Still, there was little sense of the constant security found in some other Communist countries. Issues such as Taiwan and Cambodia evoke strong positions, but conversation does not founder on ideological shoals. The Chinese seem so totally convinced of the correctness of their own world view that they do not feel they have to push it aggressively.

Despite the constant impressions of progress, however, some gray areas and basic contradictions also emerged. Three major questions remain in my own mind.

First, can individuality and creativity continue to be contained to the degree they are now in a nation with such a rich cultural heritage?

The enormous social advances of China have benefited greatly from the singleness of ideology and purpose. But a stiff price has been paid in terms of cultural and intellectual constraint. There are only eight different theatrical productions in the entire country. The universities are rigorously politicized, with little room for inquiry unrelated to Chairman Mao's thought. Freedom to travel or change jobs is restricted. When asked about personal creativity, one ceramics craftsman answered only that there was not time for individual art if the masses were to be served.

Second, will the highly decentralized Chinese economy be able to adapt successfully to expanded foreign trade and technological improvements?

Considering the problems to be overcome, economic growth in China over the last 25 years has been quite remarkable, with an annual average rise in gross national product of 4 to 5 per cent. For the 1971–75 period, this growth should range between 5.5 and 7.5 per cent a year. These results have depended largely on a wise emphasis on agriculture and a nationwide policy of decentralized, balanced industrial development. The industrial spread reflects strategic factors, the laborabundant nature of the country and inadequate transportation. There are, for instance, now only a handful of commercial jet airplanes in China, and flights are entirely dependent on weather conditions owing to limited guidance facilities common in most parts of the world.

Third, are we and the Chinese prepared to accept our very real differences and still proceed toward the closer mutual understanding that must be the basis of substantive future contact?

I fear that too often the true significance and potential of our new relationship with China has been obscured by the novelty of it all. Pandas and Ping‐Pong, gymnastics and elaborate dinners have captivated our imaginations, and I suspect the Chinese are equally intrigued by some of our more novel captitalistic ways.

In fact, of course, we are experiencing a much more fundamental phenomenon. The Chinese, for their part, are faced with altering a primarily inward focus that they have pursued for a quarter century under their current leadership. We, for our part, are faced with the realization that we have largely ignored a country with one‐fourth of the world's population. When one considers the profound differences in our cultural heritages and our social and economic systems, this is certain to be a long task with much accommodation necessary on both sides.

The social experiment in China under. Chairman Mao's leadership is one of the most important and successful in human history. How extensively China opens up and how the world interprets and reacts to the social innovations and life styles she has developed is certain to have a profound impact on the future of many nations.


Conspiracies [ edit ]

World government [ edit ]

The Rockefellers have long been associated with the idea of a secret world government, New World Order, or One World Order, through institutions such as the Trilateral Commission, which was founded by David Rockefeller to facilitate international economic cooperation and having lots of fancy foreign conferences. Other secretive institutions like the Bilderberg Group are often implicated. Γ ]

One of the first conspiracy theorists was Emanuel Josephson in Rockefeller: "Internationalist": The Man Who Misrules The World in 1952. ΐ] Gary Allen's 1976 book The Rockefeller File is a detailed attack on the family and their supposed internationalist conspiracy. Δ] He accuses the Rockefellers of manipulating tax law so they can donate money to trusts and avoid tax but retain control over it. Δ ]

They are also accused of being part of a Roman Catholic conspiracy against American Protestantism and freedom of religion, being supposedly the descendants of the Jesuit Roggenfelder family who fled Germany in one of the country's periodic outbursts of anti-Catholicism. Ε] This is despite the fact that most sources say William Sr. and his family were Protestant. Ώ] But theorists like to claim the Rockefellers lied about their religion. Ε ]

In 2015, David light-heartedly confirmed the conspiracy theories, saying he had indeed been working for increased international cooperation all his life. Α ]

Banking [ edit ]

They supposedly control American money through the Federal Reserve. Ε] In particular, they are in conspiracy with the Rothschild family (Evil Jewish bankers), Warburgs, Goldman Sachs, Lehmans, Kuhn Loeb, and other international financiers. Ζ ]

The facts are these. In 1908 following various financial crises, Congress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act to examine banking, and Senate Republican leader Nelson Aldrich led the inquiry, meeting with representatives of prominent banks including J P Morgan, National City Bank of New York, and Kuhn Loeb & Co. The National City Bank of New York in particular was closely linked to the Rockefellers, but the Rockefellers also did a lot of business with J P Morgan (which also funded Cornelius Vanderbilt's New York Central Railroad), and John D. Rockefeller Jr was married to Aldrich's daughter Abigail. Aldrich's inquiry led to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the subsequent establishment of regional Federal Reserve banks, of which the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was most powerful. The Rockefellers were also major shareholders of the Equitable Trust Company, which merged with Chase National Bank in 1930. Everything was quite closely interrelated.

Conspiracy theorist also point to the role of the Rockefellers in the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland, which was initially founded to handle Germany's World War I reparations, but now "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks" Η] ⎖] . Gates McGarrah formerly of Chase Manhattan/Chase National Bank and the Federal Reserve was its first President. By the way, McGarrah's grandson Richard McGarrah Helms was a senior official at the CIA at the time of John F. Kennedy's assassination. Needless to say, the Rockefellers have also been linked vaguely to amorphous Kennedy assassination conspiracies. ⎗ ]

Alternative medicine [ edit ]

The Rockefellers have been accused of using their donations to medical charities such as the Institute for Medical Research (now the Rockefeller University in New York) to promote conventional (i.e., scientific, evidence-based) medicine, aid Big Pharma in world domination, and crush alternative medicine. ΐ] ⎘]

World Trade Center [ edit ]

David Rockefeller of the Chase National Bank was supposedly one of the earliest advocates of building the World Trade Center in New York. ⎗ ]

The two towers of the World Trade Centre, destroyed in the 9/11 attacks, were supposedly nicknamed David and Nelson after the Rockefeller brothers. Ε] And after the towers were destroyed they took revenge or something.

What does it all mean? Hvem vet? But it must mean something…

Business practices [ edit ]

The Rockefellers are often accused of corrupt business practices, abusing their monopoly position, etc. ΐ] This may have more merit than any of the other theories here, and it's clear that American business has often involved a small group of enormously powerful people scheming together to make as much money as possible. It's called capitalism.

Zika [ edit ]

And obviously the Rockefellers invented the Zika virus and are using it to kill people. Apparently the Rockefellers have provided funding to an organisation called the American Type Culture Collection which sells biological preparations and offers freeze-dried Zika virus agent to reputable researchers. ⎙] ⎚]



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