Laurence Clarkson

Laurence Clarkson


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Laurence Clarkson ble født på Preston i 1615. Det antas at han kom i lære som skredder i London. Ved utbruddet av den engelske borgerkrigen begynte han i parlamentariske hær (Roundheads) som predikant. Sommeren 1644 var han hos regimentet til oberst Charles Fleetwood. Med base i Yarmouth ble han betalt 20 -tallet. en uke for å forkynne på lokale markeder. (1)

Clarkson hevdet senere at han var en ekstremt populær forkynner: "Nå etter at jeg hadde fortsatt et halvt år, begynte ministrene mer eller mindre å misunne meg for min lære, det var fri nåde, så i strid med deres, og at jo mer som deres folk kom fra sitt eget prestegjeld for å høre meg ... Jeg fortsatte å forkynne evangeliet og var veldig nidkjær for å være lydig mot Jesu Jesu befalinger. " (2)

Clarkson giftet seg med Frances Marchant i 1645, men like etterpå kom det påstander om seksuell upasselighet og det ble hevdet at "vi blir informert om at du dyppet seks søstre en natt naken". (3) Peter Ackroyd hevdet at Clarkson bekjente at "synden bare hadde sin forestilling i fantasi" og fortalte sine tilhengere at de "kan sverge, drikke, røyke og ha sex ustraffet". (4)

I følge Alfred Leslie Rowse, forfatteren av Refleksjoner om den puritanske revolusjonen (1986), bekjente Clarkson at "en hushjelp med pen kunnskap, som med min lære ble påvirket og jeg påvirket å ligge med henne, så den natten seiret og tilfredsstilte min begjær. Etterpå var tjenestepiken veldig forelsket i meg, og like gjerne hadde jeg blitt stengt for henne ... uten å vite at jeg hadde en kone, hun håpet å gifte seg med meg, så jeg ville bli hos henne igjen. " (5)

I oktober 1647 publiserte Clarkson, En generell avgift. Det har blitt hevdet at brosjyren viste sin støtte til Levellers ved å definere "undertrykkerne" som "adelen og herremannen" og de undertrykte som "yeoman -bonden" og "handelsmannen". (6)

William Lamont har påpekt at i 1648 ble "Clarkson beholdt som" lærer "for kompaniet til kaptein Owen Cambridge i hesteregimentet til oberst Philip Twisleton, en tjeneste han ble godt levert for. Det blir også hevdet at han i denne perioden forkynte for soldater i Gravesend og Dartford, inkludert Cornet Nicholas Lockyer fra oberst Nathaniel Richs hesteregiment. " (7)

Historikeren, J. C. Davis, hevder at han i denne perioden ble leder for en religiøs gruppe kalt Ranters. (8) Clarkson foreslo senere at det var Abiezer Coppe som virkelig var leder for denne gruppen: "Abiezer Coppe var alene med et selskap som rant og sverget, som jeg sjelden var avhengig av ... Nå er jeg som de sa, kaptein av Rant, jeg hadde de fleste av hovedkvinnene kommet til mitt losji for kunnskap ... Nå i høyden på denne rantingen ble jeg fortsatt forsiktig med penger til min kone, bare kroppen min ble gitt til andre kvinner: så vår selskapet økte, jeg ønsket ingenting som hjertet kunne ønske, men til slutt ble det en handel så vanlig at alt skum og avskum brøt ut i høyden på denne ondskapen, ja begynte å være en offentlig bebreidelse, at jeg brøt min kvartal, og dro til landet til kona mi, der jeg forresten hadde mange disipler. " (9)

Coppe, forsker ved Oxford University, hevdet at eiendom var tyveri og stolthet verre enn ekteskapsbrudd: "Jeg kan kysse og klemme damer og elske naboens kone som meg selv uten synd." Clarkson var enig med Coppe og støttet ideen om "fri kjærlighet" og grunnla en liten gruppe i London kalt "My One Flesh", et "kooperativ av villige tjenestepiker". (10) Clarkson hevdet at "Salomons skrifter var originalen til min skitne begjær". (11)

Søndag 1. april 1649 begynte Gerrard Winstanley, William Everard og en liten gruppe på rundt 30 eller 40 menn og kvinner å grave og så grønnsaker på ødemarken St George's Hill i Walton prestegjeld. De var hovedsakelig arbeidende menn og deres familier, og de håpet trygt at fem tusen andre ville bli med dem. (12) Mennene sådde bakken med pastinakk, gulrøtter og bønner. De uttalte også at de "hadde til hensikt å pløye opp bakken og så den med frøkorn". (1. 3)

Winstanleys støttespillere ble kjent som Diggers. (14) Laurence Clarkson hevdet at han hadde støttet ideene til Winstanley og hadde brukt litt tid på å grave på allmenningen. Clarkson sammenlignet ideene til Winstanley med ideene til John Lilburne og Levellers og beskrev Diggers som "True Levellers". (15) Winstanley avviste imidlertid sterkt Clarksons seksuelle ideer og fordømte "Ranting crew", og han advarte andre Diggers til å unngå "kjøttets begjær" og "praksisen med Ranting". (16)

Oliver Cromwell og hans støttespillere i Underhuset forsøkte å innføre et nytt moralsystem. Det vedtok ekteskapsbruddsloven (mai 1650) som påla dødsstraff for utroskap og utukt. Dette ble etterfulgt av blasfemiloven (august 1650). I følge Christopher Hill, forfatteren av Verden snudde på hodet: Radikale ideer under den engelske revolusjonen (1991), var denne lovgivningen et forsøk på å håndtere utviklingen av religiøse grupper som Ranters. (17)

I september 1650 publiserte Clarkson et traktat, Et enkelt øye. Som et resultat ble han siktet for blasfemi og fikk en fengsel på en måned. Clarkson og Abiezer Coppe ble brakt for et parlamentarisk utvalg. Clarkson innrømmet å kjenne Coppe, men hevdet "det er alt, for jeg har ikke sett ham over to eller tre ganger" (18) Det ble sagt at da Coppe dukket opp nektet han å fjerne hatten i ærbødighet. Det påstås at han "syntes galskap før etterforskerne" ved å snakke med seg selv. (19) Andre ganger kastet han epler, pærer og nøtteskall rundt i rommet. Komiteen sendte ham tilbake til Newgate og bestemte at det ikke skulle være noen offentlig rettssak. (20)

Da han ble løslatt, returnerte Clarkson til kona, moren til hans fem barn i Staines. Han reiste inn i Cambridgeshire og Essex, der han ifølge en kilde reddet en eksistens som utførte "hvitt trolldom". (21)

Laurence Clarkson beholdt sine radikale ideer og ble opprørt da Gerrard Winstanley forlot sine politiske aktiviteter og i 1557 godtok land gitt ham av hans velstående svigerfar, William King. Clarkson angrep ham for "et mest skammelig tilfluktssted fra Georges-hill ... for å bli en ekte tiende-samler av forsvarlighet." (22)

I 1660 publiserte Clarkson De tapte sauer funnet hvor han forsøkte å ta avstand fra tidligere tro. Dermed var Clarkson den "mest avslørende" og "mest selvbiografiske og genialt ærlige" av Ranters. (23) "Mens jeg var på denne reisen, var jeg utsatt for den synden, og likevel så hellig som om synden var en byrde for meg ... konkluderte med at ingen kunne leve uten synd i denne verden; for til tross for jeg hadde stor kunnskap om Guds ting, men jeg fant ut at hjertet mitt ikke var riktig i forhold til det jeg lot som, men fullt av begjær og glans over denne verden. " (24)

Laurence Clarkson døde i et skyldners fengsel på Ludgate i 1667.

Nå etter at jeg hadde fortsatt et halvt år, begynte ministrene mer eller mindre (som predikant i Norfolk) å misunne meg for min lære, det var fri nåde, så i motsetning til deres, og at jo mer som deres folk kom fra sitt eget sogn for å høre meg ... Jeg fortsatte å forkynne evangeliet og var veldig nidkjær for å være lydig mot Jesu Jesu befalinger; hvilken lære av meg omdannet mange av mine tidligere venner og andre til å bli døpt, og så ble det samlet et kirkelig fellesskap for å drive apostlenes orden, slik at jeg virkelig tenkte om jeg noen gang var i en virkelig lykkelig tilstand ...

Jeg tok min reise inn i samfunnet til de menneskene som kalles Søkere, som tilbad Gud bare ved bønn og forkynnelse ... På denne turen var jeg underlagt den synden, og likevel så hellig som om synden var en byrde til meg . Jeg konkluderte med at ingen kunne leve uten synd i denne verden; for til tross for at jeg hadde stor kunnskap om Guds ting, så fant jeg ut at hjertet mitt ikke var riktig for det jeg lot som, men fullt av begjær og glans over denne verden ...

Nå etter dette kom jeg tilbake til min kone i Suffolk, og jeg bøyde meg helt for å reise opp og ned i landet og forkynne for penger .... Det var få av prestene som kunne nå meg i lære eller bønn; men til tross for at jeg ikke var universitetsmann, ble jeg veldig ofte slått av arbeid, at jeg virkelig snakker om det, jeg tror det ikke var noen stakkars sjel som ble så kastet i dømmekraft og for et dårlig levebrød, som da jeg var ...

Jeg tok min fremgang inn i ørkenen ... med mange flere ord bekreftet jeg at det ikke var synd, men som mennesket anså det som synd, og derfor kan ingen være fri for synd, før det i renhet kan opptre som ingen synd, for Jeg dømte det rene for meg, som for mørke forståelser var urent, for for det rene alle ting, ja alle handlinger var rene ...

Abiezer Coppe var for seg selv med et selskap som rant og sverget, som jeg sjelden var avhengig av, bare beviste i Bibelen sannheten om det jeg handlet; og Salomos skrifter var opprinnelig min skitne begjær, forutsatt at jeg kunne ta den samme friheten som han gjorde, for da var det ingen Skrift å forstå hans skrifter, at jeg ble beveget til å skrive til verden hva som var mitt prinsipp, så offentliggjort se en bok som heter The Single Eye (Oktober 1650) ... menn og kvinner kom fra mange deler for å se ansiktet mitt og høre min kunnskap om disse tingene, da de var rastløse til de ble frigjort, som da vi kalte det. Nå på høyden av denne rantingen ble jeg fortsatt forsiktig med penger til kona mi, bare kroppen min ble gitt til andre kvinner: så vårt selskap økte, jeg ønsket ingenting som hjertet kunne ønske, men til slutt ble det en handel så vanlig at alt skum og avskum brøt ut i høyden av denne ondskapen, ja, det begynte å være en offentlig bebreidelse, at jeg brøt sammen og dro til landet til kona mi, der jeg forresten hadde mange disipler. ..

Bakgrunnen for denne dommen min var, Gud hadde gjort alt godt, så ingenting ondt, men som mennesket dømte det; for jeg skjønte at det ikke fantes tyveri, juks eller løgn, men som mennesket gjorde det slik: for hvis skapningen ikke hadde brakt denne verden til rette, som min og din, hadde det ikke vært noen tittel som tyveri, juks eller løgn; for å forhindre at Everard og Gerrard Winstanley gravde ut allmenningen, for at alle måtte leve av seg selv, da hadde det ikke vært behov for bedrageri, men forenet hverandre med hverandre.

Military Tactics in the Civil War (Svarskommentar)

Kvinner i borgerkrigen (svarkommentar)

(1) William Lamont, Laurence Clarkson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) Laurence Clarkson, De tapte sauer funnet (1660)

(3) Barry Reay, The Muggletonians verden (1983) side 167

(4) Peter Ackroyd, Borgerkrigen (2014) side 313

(5) Alfred Leslie Rowse, Refleksjoner om den puritanske revolusjonen (1986) sider 215-216

(6) Nicholas McDowell, Den engelske radikale fantasien (2003) side 8

(7) William Lamont, Laurence Clarkson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(8) J. Davis, Frykt, myte og historie (1986) side 63

(9) Laurence Clarkson, De tapte sauer funnet (1660)

(10) Antonia Fraser, Det svakere fartøyet (1984) side 225

(11) Laurence Clarkson, De tapte sauer funnet (1660)

(12) John F. Harrison, Vanlige mennesker (1984) side 199

(13) Ariel Hessayon, William Everard: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(14) John Gurney, Brave Community: The Digger Movement in the English Revolution (2013) side 128

(15) Christopher Hill, Verden snudd på hodet: Radikale ideer under den engelske revolusjonen (1991) side 113

(16) John Gurney, Gerrard Winstanley (2013) side 45

(17) Christopher Hill, Verden snudd på hodet: Radikale ideer under den engelske revolusjonen (1991) side 208

(18) Laurence Clarkson, De tapte sauer funnet (1660)

(19) Frank E. Manuel, Utopisk tanke i den vestlige verden (1979) side 357

(20) The Ranters Ranting (1650) side 2

(21) William Lamont, Laurence Clarkson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(22) J. D. Alsop, Gerrard Winstanley: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(23) Alfred Leslie Rowse, Refleksjoner om den puritanske revolusjonen (1986) side 215

(24) Laurence Clarkson, De tapte sauer funnet (1660)


Laurence Clarkson

Laurence Patrick Clarkson var den første premieren på United Provinces of Gladysynthia. Han tjenestegjorde en periode fra 1941 til 1948 etter å ha blitt valgt fra provinsen Pteranim. Før han tjente som premiere, tjenestegjorde han som general i United Gladysynthian Army og 15 totalt militærtjeneste. Som Premiere fokuserte Clarkson på å bringe provinsene nærmere hverandre og gi innbyggerne stor innflytelse i den føderale regjeringen. Hans ledelse i Danaska -konflikten på syv dager 1945 fikk kritikk på grunn av den dårlige ledelsen av militæret, selv om han lyktes i å bringe nasjonen nærmere en enhetlig patriotisme.

Clarkson døde 21. juni 1982 i hjembyen Ponamu, Pteranim. Så snart nyheten begynte å spre seg, beordret den føderale regjeringen umiddelbart alle nasjonale og provinsielle flagg for å bli flagget på halv stab i en måned til 31. juli. Etter hans død var Clarksons familie og den føderale regjeringen vert for begravelsen hans under Capitol Rotunda i Mönusÿnthys. Han ble gravlagt på Willow Garden Cemetery i Ponamu 28. juni 1982.


Barndommens hjertesorg

Clarksons hit "Because of You" er stappfull av hjerteskjærende tekster. "På grunn av deg / jeg kommer aldri for langt fra fortauet," crooner hun i ett vers. "På grunn av deg / lærte jeg å spille på den sikre siden, slik at jeg ikke blir skadet."

Dessverre handler denne smertefulle balladen om Clarksons biologiske far, Stephen Michael Clarkson, og foreldrenes rotete skilsmisse (pr. MTV Nyheter). Stephen klarte ikke å holde kontakten etter at han skilte seg fra Clarksons mor da hun var 6 år gammel, et ødeleggende slag for ethvert barn. Clarkson prøvde å nå ut til Stephen selv, men hun ble angivelig avvist flere ganger i det hun omtalte som en "ydmykende" innsats. under et intervju i november 2017 med Skavlan, hun til og med omtalte forholdet til faren som "giftig", og spurte om han til og med var "dyktig [til kjærlighet]."

Clarkson har imidlertid et sunt syn på historien hennes med faren. "Jeg vet at mange mennesker sier" Aww ", men det er egentlig ikke den situasjonen," forklarte hun. "Jeg tror at hvis du ikke vokser opp med det, er det vanskelig å gå glipp av noe du aldri har hatt."

Vel, det høres ut for oss som om Stephen er den som savner her.


Laurence Clarkson - Historie

Borgerkrigsbrosjyrer - Et enkelt øye: Laurence Clarkson

Et enkelt øye: Laurence Clarkson

Kilde: Gjengitt i & quotA Collection of Ranter Writings & quot, red. Nigel Smith, 1983 og 2014.

Alle lys, Nei mørke eller lys og mørke En:

Der du har det rent diskutert,

1. Originalen til mørke.
2. Hva mørke er.
3. Hvorfor kalles det mørke.

Hva Gud er Innenfor , og hva Uten hvordan han sies
å være En, ennå To når To og ikke En, ennå
deretter En, og ikke To.

Et ord fra Herren som berører den eneste oppstandelsen
av kroppen, i, fra og til
LORD.

Med en viss pakke Forespørsler å bli besvart fra
Himmel eller helvete,

Inntrykk kl LONDON, i året som
MAKTENE AV Himmel og jord Var, er ,
og Skal være Rystet, ja forbannet, til
de skal ikke være mer for noensinne.

Se, herlighetens konge er nå kommet
Reduser Gud og djevelen til deres undergang
For begge er tjenere for meg
Det lever og hersker i perfekt majestet:
Selv om jeg kalles Gud, er det ikke mitt navn,
Det er sant at jeg er begge deler, men er ikke det samme:
Derfor er det et rart dere alle,
Så du ber og kaller til tittelen Guder.
Å da, min skapning, la meg snakke med deg
Din tilbedelse og din Gud skal dø i sannhet.
Hvorfor gir dere Worldings? blir kastet opp og ned,
Som han er, så er vi også i denne verden
Og så er alle ting perfekte, rettferdige og gode
Ja, alle blir reddet av Korset, sårene hans og blodet.
Hvor ellers er himmelen, men i vår nåværende fred
Fra han? eller helvete, men når dette slutter?
Fie da for skam, se ikke over himmelen
For Gud, eller himmelen for her ligger skatten din
Selv i disse skjemaene,
Evig vilje vil regjere,
Gjennom ham er alle ting, bare én, ikke Twain:
Sikker på at han er fontenen hvorfra alt er
Både gode og syke (så kalt) ser ut til å komme til våren.
Til dette
Enkelt øye, selv om Adams to
Kan ikke oppfatte, til slike, til alle

Etter å ha opplevd at hans majestet, alle tinges væren og driften, vises i og til skapningen under en todelt form eller et syn, som gjør at det blir ekte med skapningen, som bare er en skygge med dette uendelige vesenet: Slik at derfra oppstår det, skapningen antar at Gud er det som ikke er, og som ikke skal være, som er Gud.

Derfor har hans majestet avslørt sin glede, slik at han derved kan ta anledning til å utfolde seg i og til skapningen under et slikt perspektiv, for at skapningen kan kjenne Gud, som han er kjent for Gud, slik at det fra Guds klare utseende, skapningen kan se rent hva Gud er, som ennå er åpenbart, skapelsen i denne nasjonen bor i ingen annen region enn kvinnen i Samaria: Og derfor er det hans majestets rop ikke blir oppfylt og adlyd, men av kirker, Hellige og djevler motsatte og fordømte: Så sjelden det er å finne skapningen som er våknet ut av hans dype søvn, som har ristet av dekket, slik at han fra det klare utseendet til Gud kan si at sløret er tatt bort , og at han tror på sannheten slik den er i hans majestet.

Som svar på dette har jeg reist fra den ene enden av England til en annen, og ennå har jeg funnet svært få som kan definere for meg gjenstanden for deres tilbedelse, eller gi meg en karakter hva den Gud er, så mye bekjent av dem ennå til tross for at jeg ikke kunne komme inn i noen by, by eller landsby, men der hørte jeg navnet Gud under en eller annen form, tilbad at for Gud, som jeg hadde erfaring, var ingen Gud: Slik at jeg i løpet av min pilgrimsreise konkluderte med det var guder mange, og herrer mange, men for meg bare én Gud: Derfor ble jeg båret ut av Gud for å holde ut til skapningen, Gud i går, i dag og for alltid.

I den hensikt, i gjennomgang av hans majestets glede, kan du legge merke til hva som er meningen, eller rettere sagt i den påfølgende avhandlingen som er registrert, for øyeblikket, men bare presentert for deg et kart, der du kan se fullstendig hva det Gud er du later som om du tilber, enten han er uendelig eller endelig, om han er utsatt for lidenskap og hengivenhet, om han ser skapningens handlinger mens skapningen respekterer dem, og om han kan bli endret av dine bønner, slik at forkynne en dom, eller frembring en befrielse, ja om han er alt, og i alle, eller men helt delvis, det vil si om en handling er god, en annen ond, ett lys, et annet mørke og i så fall resonnere fra skriften erklærer, Gud er lidenskapelig, Gud er kjærlig, og hvis enten, så foranderlig.

Men av former og åndelig Gud som former bekjenner han seg, og så tilbedt som en Gud som ser ondt og godt så lidenskapelig med den ene og kjærlig med den andre, slik at de til slutt forestiller seg ham som seg selv, ikke uendelig, men endelig derfor er det en handling i Gud som er oppfattet to i seg selv, det vil si en handling ekteskapsbrudd, en annen ærlighet når fornuften ble innrømmet, og derved tolket skriften, så skulle de observere i den handlingen de kaller ærlighet, å være ekteskapsbrudd, og den handlingen såkalt ekteskapsbrudd, for å ha like mye ærlighet som den andre, for med Gud er de bare en, og at den ene handlingen er hellig, rettferdig og god som Gud. At for det rene er alle ting rene: Slik at jeg for min del ikke vet noe urent for meg, ikke mer enn det er av seg selv, og derfor blir handlingen uansett hva jeg gjør av den majestet i meg, som i den påfølgende avhandlingen vil fremgå hvilke handlinger de er, naturen av å handle dem og i perioden: hvordan jeg setter pris på dem: Slik at jeg ikke veier hvordan jeg blir dømt, ved at jeg ikke dømmer meg selv Så for å konkludere, er skriftens, kirker, helgeners og djevelers censures ikke lenger for meg enn avskjæring av en hunds nakke,
Vale.

ISAIAH 42,16.
Jeg vil gjøre mørket lys for dem.

Gudenes Gud har kastet meg på dette emnet, til det siste kan han ta anledning til å utfolde seg selv hva han er i seg selv, og hvordan han får til seg selv i sitt utseende for skapningen.

For det formål kan du lese gjennom de foregående versene, og du vil finne det som forårsaket disse begrepene i denne teksten. i mørketilstanden slik at Kristus, kalt til Guds Sønn, ble lovet å referere til deres trelldom for å forløse dem fra mørkets område, til tross for at de hadde tilbad det for Gud som ikke var noen gud, men nå er tiden inne, nå er dagen da Gud vil plyndre dem av deres avguder, at Gud vil opplyse deres mørke forståelser, som i min tekst, Gud vil gjøre mørket lys for dem.

Til tross for at noen kan anta at forbindelsen til dette bare angår hedningene, men la meg fortelle deg at jeg finner ut at Gud ikke er så begrenset i pennen, blekket og papiret, men at han kan og vil gjøre mørket av jødelyset, så vel som hedningen ja, mørket i deg som alle andre: for det var aldri mer overtro, mer mørke i kirkene enn nå, derfor trenger du aldri mer at Guds lys skal utvise de mørke tåken som på dette tidspunktet er spredt over alle meninger i Riket: Så nå nærmer tiden seg at ordene i denne teksten skal vises i Åndens utfoldelser, Jeg vil gjøre mørket lys foran dem.

Fordi jeg nå er kommet til ønsket havn, vil alle vanskeligheter være å laste av fartøyet som er fullpakket med slike skjulte perler, hvordan man lager varer av dem, hvordan man bretter dette ut

Med forbehold om din kapasitet, hvordan du kan gi deg Guds sinn, i slike termer som Gud vises i deg.

Og at jo mer, jeg finner disse utfoldelsene av Gud i dette, ser ut til å virke i strid med de fleste som er sitert i historien Jeg vil gjøre mørket lys Hvordan er det mulig når det ikke er nattverd, ingen korrespondanse men fiendskap? Ja, så stor at de ikke kan bo i ett hus, ligge i en seng, men sluke hverandre for der mørket er, lyset er ikke, og der lyset dukker opp, er mørket borte, men til tross for at du hører, han vil gjøre mørket lys.

Så det første jeg tenker på herfra er, At han ikke vil ta mørket bort og plassere lys i rommet, men det som i Skriften kalles mørke, og av skapningen trodde mørket, skal bli lys.

For det andre skal vi spørre, Om at i Skriften, eller av skapningen med tittelen mørket, være mørke med Gud eller nei?

For dette formål kan du lese at lys og mørke er like for Gud. Så da ser det bare ut som et mørke i skapningens frykt, så bare et forestilt mørke for sier teksten, Gud er lys, og i ham er det ikke noe mørke. Slik at du ser hva som helst eller uansett hva det kalles mørke i Skriften, men det er ingen hos Gud. Deretter

For det tredje skal jeg søke, Enten det i Bibelen eller av skapningen som kalles Gud, innrømmer du en annen tittel enn uvanlig (for å vite) En selv, og hvis jeg finner at det bare er ett vesen, én Gud, og at alt som er lys med Gud, da skal jeg ikke slutte før jeg finner Mørkets opprinnelse, hva det er, og hvorfor det kalles mørke, og ampc.

For det første finner jeg i hans guddommelige vesen, i hans essens, det er bare én Gud som historien erklærer det samme. Jeg er det jeg er: Jeg er Herren, og det er ingen andre: Det er ingen annen Gud ved siden av meg: med varianter av Bibelen til dette formålet. Så da er det rådyr av Historien, at Guds Vesen og Essens ikke innrømmer flertall, men entall.

Slik at det bare er én Gud, hvis navn er lys, såkalt Gud for, det som Gud er, er Gud (å vite) Gud er lys, da er det lyset Gud for det Gud sier at han er, det er seg selv, men Gud sier: Han er lys, derfor er lys Gud så fra Skriften der Gud sa La det bli lys, det er ikke mer enn om han hadde sagt: La Gud være, og det var Gud, for Gud er lys. Til,

Du har hørt at Skriften bare holder frem én Gud, som Gud er lys, men den samme Skriften fremhever ikke bare lys, men lys som vers 14. La det være lys, og det lyser i Himlens Firmament: Slik at Gud skapte to store lys, det vil si Solens lys, månens lys, stjerner, ild og lys. Legg derfor merke til at om enn bare en Gud, men allikevel forskjellige lys, og at alt ble laget av Gud for den som sa La det være lys, sa La det være lys derfor blir han kalt Lysets far, & ampc.

Men hvordan skal vi gjøre med det stedet, for Gud er lys, ikke lys, heller må han være så godt lys som lys, eller at alle andre lys enn en har et vesen og original foruten Gud.

Og hvis det ser ut til at alle lys, eller det som kalles lys, selv om lyset i lyset er laget av Gud, så er lyset fra lyset Guds lys, men hvis alt det som kalles lys, for å si det, er solens, månens, stjerners, ildens og lysets lys, har ikke vært i Gud, da ikke laget av Gud. Så det vil følge at det ikke bare er én, men to guder.

Men Skriften sier: Det Gud skapte lyset, og Gud skapte lysene: Slik at både lys og lys ble skapt av Gud, da hadde de vært i Gud for alt det han skapte var i ham, av ham og for ham, så vel som solen som månen, stjernene, ilden og stearinlyset, som noen av dem Slik at ved å lage disse, skapte han ingenting annet enn seg selv for Gud er lys, så vel det ene som det andre.

Men så: Hvis Gud er lys, så lyser det slik at vi like godt kan si guder, som Gud en sol for Gud, en annen av månen, for ved at Gud er lys, må han like godt være månens lys, som solens lys, lyset fra ilden, lyset, som stjernene.

Fornekter ikke, men Gud er like godt lyset til den ene, som lyset til den andre, men til tross for at Gud bare er ett lys, og selv om det kalles lys av Gud, er de bare ett lys i Gud for å bli kalt det Lysets far, men én far, selv om det er mange lys. Så hvorfor de bare er ett lys i Gud, eller Gud ett lys, og likevel av Gud kalt lys, refererer til deres distinkte utseende i de flere kroppene (for å si) solens kropp, månens kropp som som du ser til tross for flere stråler fra en sol, men da de steg opp fra solen, var de bare en i solen, ja, de var ikke noe annet enn solen, men etter at de ble gitt ut av solen, en på denne måten, en annen på den måten fra solen, så i henhold til denne dykkerenes utseende, kalles den ikke mer en sol, men en stråle, ikke bare stråle, men bjelker, som når de reduseres til sitt vesen, ikke lenger kalles en stråle, men en sol .

Så hvorfor de kalles lys, og likevel bare ett lys med eller i Gud, som er lys, er det bare i henhold til dets forskjellige utseende, som i vesenet bare er et utseende, fordi han som er lysets vesen, er utseendet på lyset, i hvilken type eller i det hele tatt.

Slik at du nå kan legge merke til, og til en viss grad se hva Gud er, og hva som skal forstås med disse begrepene, Gud er lys, og lys er Gud som hvis det er det lyset er Gud, det vil si solens, månens, stjerners, ild og stearinlys, som hvis lyset som vises i disse og holdes frem av disse, er Guds lys, hvorfor ikke Hele skapningen si med sin bror Jakob, Det var sikkert Gud i disse, og vi visste det ikke?

Men kanskje du vil si at lyset som er registrert, ikke skal forstås lyset fra Solen, Månen og ampc. men et lys som er sitert i disse flere Skriftene, nemlig et guddommelig og bibelsk lys, som en skapning ser og nyter Gud av.

Men Gud som er lys dukker opp i deg, og oppdager for deg at lyset i skapningen ikke er det samme lyset fra Solen, men lysets utseende i meg viser meg (og det fra Skriften sier til meg) at en er som mye guddommelig som den andre ikke mer verdifull (rett og slett i seg selv) enn den andre: for som du har hørt, selv om lys, men bare lys hos Gud: slik at alt som er lys, ikke er annet enn Gud for lys er lys, og Gud er lett: dette kan i noen grad bli trodd. Men nå til saken i hånden, Jeg vil få mørket til å lyse og skjeve ting rett, og ampc.

Enten det er meningen at nattens mørke skal bli dagens lys, eller det er mørket, som det er skrevet i flere deler av Bibelen: ja det er meningen at du kaller mørket i skapningen, som mørket er synd, helvete og elendighet: dette mørket vil han lage lys, Himmel og lykke, for i Gud er ikke mørke, synd eller elendighet, men dette vil han gjøre lys. Så nå er jeg kommet til stedet der jeg sa til deg at jeg skulle vise deg mørkets oppgang, hva det er og hvorfor det kalles mørke.

Til dette formål vil du finne i Bibelen en todelt kraft, dvs. flere krefter enn en, men til tross for at det ikke er noen annen kraft enn Gud, og de kreftene som er, er ordinert av Gud. Derfra kan du observere sammenhengen herav løpe i flertall, ikke makt, men makt til mørkets kraft, lysets kraft, makt hos de ugudelige, makt i det guddommelige, men du har fremholdt i samme Skrift, men én Gud.

Så da, som det er bevist, og jeg tror av dere alle vil bli innvilget, at lysets kraft, liv og frelse kommer fra Gud, den kraften som virker i det guddommelige, har sin oppgang fra Gud, men da: Hva skal vi si til mørkets makt, den makten hos de onde? for i dem er en stor makt, som profeten sier: Jeg har sett de onde i stor makt, (for eksempel) strømmen inn Esau, hos Farao, kraften i Herodes og Pilatus, ved hvilken de korsfestet Kristus, fra hvem kom denne makten? Bibelen sier ovenfra (i vidd) fra Gud: men dette var mørkets, syndens kraft: var det ikke en syndig handling å korsfeste Kristus? at jeg vet at dere alle vil konkludere med at det var en ond handling, og likevel var denne handlingen i henhold til Guds vilje, som historien sier, Ved Guds kraft stod jordens konger opp, og herskerne var samlet, mot Herren og mot hans Kristus. & ampc. Hva hadde de makt fra Gud til å ødelegge Guds Sønn? var dette Guds vilje? så sier Skriften, ved Guds kraft samlet de seg: Hva skal jeg gjøre? Ingenting annet enn det hånden din og rådene dine bestemte før du skulle gjøre.

Vel venner, tenk på denne kraften Pilatus, var en mørk, syndig kraft, men den kom fra Gud, ja, den var Guds kraft, som det er registrert: Jeg danner lys, jeg skaper mørke, jeg danner fred, jeg skaper ondskap. Så la det være en kraft, uansett i hvem som helst, enten det er i kjøtt eller ånd, ondt eller gudfryktig, det er Guds kraft, ja, kom fra Gud. Slik at han med tiden vil gjøre denne mørkets makt til en lysmakt som, mens du har kalt og fordømt én makt for en mørk syndig kraft, skal du få det til å vises for deg, som nå er det for meg, at det er en makt av lys for dere hørte at denne kraften kom fra Gud, denne mørkets kraft: men Gud er lys, og i ham er det ikke noe mørke.

So that consider, though two powers, yet they have but one womb, one birth to both Twins, both brethren, as Esau og Jacob, then if Twins, if brethren, then one Flesh, one Nature, yea, of the self-same Nature of God, from whom they came as well Esau som Jacob, Farao som Moses, Pilate som Kristus: I say, although these be distinct, in reference to their several operations, as two streams runneth contrary ways, yet they are but of one nature, and that from one fountain: Herein it appeareth but a seeming opposition instance the tide, what striving for victory yet but one water, yea and that from one ocean. So is the case with these powers, one opposite to the other, contending for victory, till at last, one overcomes another, as the tide the stream.

Thus you may take notice from whence darkness hath its rise, only from God. Secondly, What darkness is nothing but light with God.

Thirdly, Why it is called darkness, is but only in reference to the creatures apprehension, to its appearance so nothing but imagined darkness: therefore his meaning is, that which appeareth now under the form of darkness, shall ere long appear in a Visage of light, as saith the Text, I will make darkness light before them.

Again, it may be granted by you, as it hath been by some, that the power or powers are of God yea that power by which Farao persecuted Israel that power by which Pilate crucified Christ, yet it will not be granted that God gave the power so to do neither was it the power, but a corrupt thought, or sinful imagination arising from the Devil, and their own wicked inventions.

Svar. Being now surrounded with the black regiment, whose commander is the Devil, and the whole legion consisting of the imaginations of the whole creation, I have no way to escape this camp and bottomless gulf, but by breaking through the bulwark and stronghold fortified against me.

So that being armed with a weapon of Majesty, I doubt not but that God in me shall cast down those strong holds and imaginations, yea everything that exalteth itself against the power of the most high.

To that end attend the nature of your objection, the sum thereof is to this effect, that a sinful act, or an act that is sinful, hath not its being in the power of God, nor produced by the power of God no not that act of crucifying the Son of God, but from the Devil, and their sinful imaginations.

If thou by whom the objection was raised, didst nakedly understand the truth therein contained, I should not in the least molest thee, but in that thou declarest truth not knowing it, I am engaged to unfold the same, that thou mayest know it, for whereas thou sayest a sinful act is not produced by the power of God, it's Truth: for that which is not in the power, cannot be acted by the power: but an act that is sinful is not in God, nor the power of God, therefore hath not its being in God, nor acted by the power of God, for God is light, and in him no darkness: but sin is darkness, therefore sin is not in God.

So that yet, notwithstanding that, I must tell you as before I have related, that as all powers are of God, so all acts, of what nature soever are produced by this power, yea this power of God: so that all those acts arising from the power, are as Pure as the power, and the power as Pure as God.

So from hence it comes, there is no act whatsoever, that is impure in God, or sinful with or before God.

Yet say you, there is a sinful act, or acts that are sinful so that if all that is an act be produced by the power of God, then why not the act that is sinful arise from the same power, so sinful in and with God.

As I have said, so I say again, that those acts, or what act soever, so far as by thee is esteemed or imagined to be sinful, is not in God, nor from God, yet still, as I said, all acts that be are from God, yea as pure as God.

And yet, notwithstanding that act, or so much of the act that thou apprehendest sin is not in God, nor simply in thyself: for indeed sin hath its conception only in the imagination therefore so long as the act was in God, or nakedly produced by God, it was as holy as God: but after there is an appearance in thee, or apprehension to thee, that this act is good, and that act is evil, then hast thou with Adam eat of the forbidden tree, of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, then hast thou tasted of that fruit, which is not in God for saith the text, Out of the mouth of the most High proceedeth not evil, and good: good but not evil for God is good, and good is God: therefore it was he made all things good: yea that which by you is imagined evil, he made good: so that thou apprehending that from God which is not in God doth of all his creatures most abuse God, in making God the author of that which is not in God, (to wit) sin. But to the matter in hand, Thou hast heard all acts that are, had their being and birth from God, yea acted by God, to be plain those acts by thee called swearing, drunkenness, adultery, and theft, &c. These acts simply as acts, were produced by the power of God, yea, perfected by the wisdom of God.

What said I, a swearer, a drunkard, an adulterer, a thief, had these the power and wisdom of God, to swear, drink, whore, and steal? O dangerous tenent! O blasphemy of the highest nature! what make God the author of sin? so a sinful God! Well friends, although the appearance of God in me be as terrible to you, as it were to Moses in the mount, yet notwithstanding, that what I have seen and heard, I do not in the least tremble, but rejoice, that I have this opportunity to declare it unto you however it may be received by you.

To that end consider what I said those acts called swearing, drunkenness, adultery and theft, those acts, simply as acts, not as they are called (and by thee imagined) drunkenness, adultery and theft, that is in and from thy imagination for there is no such act as drunkenness, adultery, and theft in God though by his power and wisdom thou executest this act and that act, yet that appearance by which thou apprehendest and esteemest them to be acts of sin, that esteemation was not in God, though from God.

For indeed, it is but imagination, which is not, yea nothing in this, infinite being for as I said before, so I say again, the very title Sin, it is only a name without substance, hath no being in God, nor in the creature, but only by imagination and therefore it is said, the imaginations of your hearts are only evil continually. It is not the body, nor the life, but the imagination only, and that not at a time, or times, but continually. Herein sin admitting of no form in itself, is created a form in the estimation of the creature so that which is not to God, is found to be in a something creature as you have it related, One man esteemeth one day above another, another esteemeth every day alike: what to one is pure, to another is impure herein it appeareth but a bare estimation.

To this end (saith Paul) I know and am persuaded, by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself, but to him that esteemeth anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

So that the extent thereof is in reference to all things, as well as meats and drinks let it be what act soever. Consider what act soever, yea though it be the act of swearing, drunkenness, adultery and theft yet these acts simply, yea nakedly, as acts are nothing distinct from the act of prayer and praises. Why dost thou wonder? why art thou angry? they are all one in themselves no more holiness, no more purity in one than the other.

But once the creature esteemeth one act Adultery, the other honesty, the one pure, the other impure yet to that man that so esteemeth one act unclean, to him it is unclean: (as saith the History) there is nothing unclean of itself, [but] but but to him that esteemeth it unclean: yea again and again it is recorded that to the pure all things, yea all things are pure, but to the defiled, all things are defiled: yea the prayer and praises of the wicked are defiled, as saith the History, The Prayers of the wicked are abomination to the Lord.

Observe not the act nakedly, as the act, for we find the prayer and praises of some to be pure, though to others impure: impure to those acting, in relation to the title his apprehension, his Conscience in the improvement of them is defiled and condemned for a swearer, a drunkard, an adulterer, and a thief.

When as a man in purity in light, acts the same acts, in relation to the act, and not the title: this man [no this man] doth not swear, whore, nor steal: so that for want of this light, of this single pure eye, there appeareth Devil and God, Hell and Heaven, sin and holiness, damnation and salvation only, yea only from the esteemation and dark apprehension of the creature.

I will make darkness light, rough ways smooth not half light and half darkness, not part rough and part smooth but as it is said, Thou art all fair my Love, there is no spot in thee. Observe, all fair my Love in thee only is beauty and purity, without, defilement: my love my dove is but one, thou one, not two, but only one, my love: Love is God, and God is Love so all pure, all, light, no spot in thee.

So that consider what act soever is done by thee, in light and love, is light, and lovely though it be that act called adultery, in darkness, it is so but in light, honesty, in that light loveth itself, so cannot defile itself: for love in light is so pure, that a whore it cannot endure, but enstranges itself from darkness from whence whoredom has its first original. Light is so pure, that it will not lodge with two but treads the steps of the Apostle, saying, Let every man have his own wife: when as darkness is not ashamed to lie with his neighbours wife: for in light I declare that whoredom is the fruits of darkness therefore no companion for light, who scorns the society of a whore indeed. Light is like Susanna, that had rather die, than be defiled with harlots. Yea, innocent Susanna, uncorrupted light, must be accused, arraigned and condemned, for that her accusers are guilty of: Yet fear not Susanna, thou shalt be vindicated, and thy accusers condemned.

So that this is my Majesty's pleasure to declare, again and again, that what acts soever is done by thee, according as thou esteemest it, yea according as thou believest it, so be it done unto thee that is to say, if thou hast committed those acts in Scripture recorded for swearing, drunkenness, adultery and theft and so acting apprehendest them, let me deal plainly with thee to thee it is sin: and for so sinning, thy imagination will pursue thee, arraign thee, and condemn thee for a swearer, an adulterer and a thief.

When as on the contrary, thou are persuaded that those titles in scripture, and thy apprehension recorded, for swearing, adultery, and theft, be no such acts with thee, but only titles without thee neither dost thou apprehend them any other, but pure acts, without title: then I declare, according to thy esteemation so is the act to thee, and for so doing, thy imagination, will not, cannot condemn thee, but say with the Apostle, We know that an idol is nothing: what thou esteemeth idolatry, to us is none: So that whatsoever I act, though it be that act you call swearing, adultery, and theft, yet to me there is no such title, but a pure act, for there is nothing that I do that is unclean to me, no more than it is unclean of itself.

And yet notwithstanding this, my privilege doth not in the least approbate thee, yea thee that apprehendest the title to swear, whore or steal, &c. because to thee it is unclean, therefore not lawful for thee: neither canst thou upon the bare report hereof, say, Well, if it be but as man esteems it, then I will esteem it so too.

Alas friend, let me tell thee, whatever thy tongue saith, yet thy imagination in thee declares sad things against thee, in that thou esteemest them acts of sin, thy imagination will torment thee for this sin, in that thou condemnest thyself, thou art tormented in that condemnation with endless misery: so that I say, Happy is the man that condemns not himself in those things he alloweth of.

No matter what Scripture, Saints, or Churches say, if that within thee do not condemn thee, thou shalt not be condemned for saith the history, Out of thine own mouth, not another's, will I judge thee: Therefore, remember that if thou judge not thyself, let thy life be what it will, yea act what thou canst, yet if thou judge not thyself, thou shalt not be judged For, I came not into the World to condemn, but to save the World. But if the reproach and slander of saints and churches do cause thee to question thyself, then art thou ready to say within what they report without, I am guilty of what they accuse me: So that true is the saying, O Adam, thy destruction is of thyself.

But before I conclude touching how darkness is made light, sin holiness, and so all deformity converted into its own pure nature, it was my pleasure to treat something concerning the nature of this loss, that whether darkness in Scripture recorded, and by the creature believed, be cast out as distinct from light, and so said to be damned, in that it is not light, not pure, but defiled.

In answer to that, the Lord declares that those filthy abominable works of darkness (by thee so apprehended) shall be destroyed and damned But how, or where they shall be damned? that is in the sayings of this text, I will make darkness light: Oh that this were purely minded, then thou wouldst see that sin must not be thrown out, but cast within, there being in the vat, it is dyed of the same colour of the liquor as saffron converts milk into its own colour, so doth the fountain of light convert sin, hell, and devil into its own nature and light as itself I will make rough ways smooth: Now it is dammed and rammed into its only centre, there to dwell eternal in the bosom of its only Father: This, and only this, is the damnation so much terrifying the creature in its dark apprehension, that it shall be robbed and carried it knows not whither, crieth out I am damned, I am damned, being carried out of its former knowledge, now knoweth not where it is, therefore lamenting, Master, Save me, I perish, perished in its own apprehension, yet saved in the essential. Thus much concerning I will lead the blind by a way that they know not, and in paths they have not known: I will make darkness light, crooked things straight, &c.

A Word from the Lord touching Resurrection, there being reports not a few that I should deny the Resurrection of that body consisting of flesh, blood and bone. I answer, If I should not, reason would arraign me for a mad man, Scripture would declare me anti-scripturist, in favouring such a palpable tenent of darkness, which if rightly understood, affirm no such thing as the resurrection of this body: both which affirm, that what the body is made of, that is the life, perfection, and happiness of the body but thy body consisting of flesh and bone, is made of the dust of the earth, therefore when thy body is reduced to its centre, then (and not till then) is thy body alive, perfected in its happiness now for thee to raise this body, it would declare thee a tyrant for as it is destructive for the fowl to live in the water, or the fish in the firmament, so to raise thy body to a local place called Heaven, would to thy body become a Hell for as the earth would become a Hell to the spirit, so that place called heaven, would become a hell to the body, for after laid in the grave, it is buried in its heaven, glory, and happiness, where it shall rot and consume into its own nature for ever and ever.

Yet not denying but that body quoted in the history shall rise, which body hath several denominations, as earthly, corruptible, dishonourable, weak, vile, and natural body all which doth but make one clear prospect, in which you may take a full view of what that body is made of that shall rise, whether a visible body consisting of flesh and bone, or invisible body, consisting of the sensitive within this body To this end the history speaketh on this wise, That we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the redemption, to wit, our Body.

So that in light I declare, that the corrupt senses must put on incorruption, thy mortal apprehension must put on immortality, that whereas before thou wast alive to five, and dead to one, now thou shalt be dead to five, and alive to one, that lovely pure one who beholds nothing but purity, wheresoever it goeth, and whatsoever it doth, all is sweet and lovely let it be under what title soever, thou art risen from title to act, from act to power, from power to his name, and that only one name, pure and undefiled so that now thou art of purer eyes than to behold any iniquity, so that Devil is God, Hell is Heaven, sin holiness, damnation salvation, this and only this is the first resurrection.

Yet here is no lodging, no safe inhabiting, in that thou art yet on the borders of Egypt, only with Moses on Mount Hermon, only verbally, not practically, so short of the second Resurrection which is the life and power what thou saw, for till thou be delivered of that thou wast risen to, thou canst not say, Death, where is thy sting? Grave, where is thy victory?

Wonder not at me, for without act, without birth, no powerful deliverance, not only the talkers, but the doers not only your spirit, but your body must be a living and acceptable sacrifice therefore till acted that so called sin, thou art not delivered from the power of sin, but ready upon all alarums to tremble and fear the reproach of thy body.

Therefore my beloved ones, that supposeth your service is perfect freedom, by having only light into another's life, know this, that if light without life, thy service will be perfect bondage and therefore it is when a creature is drawn forth to act in another's life, instead of triumphing over sin, he will be conquered in sin so that I say, till flesh be made spirit, and spirit flesh, so not two, but one, thou art in perfect bondage: for without vail, I declare that whosoever doth attempt to act from flesh, in flesh, to flesh, hath, is, and will commit adultery: but to bring this to a period, for my part, till I acted that, so called sin, I could not predominate over sin so that now whatsoever I act, is not in relation to the title, to the flesh, but that eternity in me So that with me, all creatures are but one creature, and this in my form, the representative of the whole creation: So that see what I can, act what I will, all is but one most sweet and lovely. Therefore my dear ones consider, that without act, no life without life, no perfection and without perfection, no eternal peace and freedom indeed, in power, which is the everlasting Majesty, ruling, conquering, and dancing all into itself, without end, for ever.

What that God is so often recorded in scripture, and by the creature believed.

Først, whether he admit of a corporeal substance (to wit) flesh, blood and bones and if so, (as by some of the creation is believed) then the question will be Where his habitation hath been, is and will be, to the end of the world? I say, if God admit of a corporal substance whether then any other but a local place can contain that substance, or that he can be omnipresent in all places, and with all creatures at one time, in that substance, &c?

Secondly, Whether God admit of any other but a Spirit, so invisible? And if so, (as by others of his creation believed,) the query is then, where its region hath been, is, and will be? I say, if God admit of no corporal substance, form, nor image, but only a spirit, whether then any other but an invisible habitation, an infinite boundless region can contain an invisible infinite boundless spirit.

Thirdly, If God be a spirit, then whether a spirit can be confined from any thing? And if confined, then must we observe these two things
1. What He is confined from, or confined in?
2. What is it that doth confine God?

Fourthly, If God be a spirit, and cannot be confined, then whether God be not infinite and omnipresent in all places, and in all things: as well Hell as Heaven, Devil as angel, sin as holiness, darkness as light?

Fifthly, If God be infinite in all things then whether all things be not finite in God? That if God be subject to nothing, then whether all things be not subjected to God, so as to do nothing without God, nor against God but in the performance of the will of God, as well Esau som Jacob, Pharaoh som Moses, Pilate som Kristus yea, sin, Devil, or any other instrument whatsoever?

Sixthly, Whether a creature living in God, so as to know God, as he is known of God, be not infinite with and in God and so all things finite unto him, as unto God subject unto him, as unto God whether Devil, Hell, sin, death, or any other thing whatsoever?

Seventhly, Hvis God be in all things, as in all men, the wicked as the godly, wherein then is the state of the wicked worse than the godly? Yea, if God be in both, why have they not both one title, but one wicked, another godly?

Eighthly, If God be in all things, then in all creatures that hath live whatsoever, so that wherein is man better than these, or hath any pre-eminence above these? Yet if he have, by whom is it given and the reason of so being given?

Ninthly, If God be in all, the wicked as the godly, why is not the wicked saved with the godly? But if not saved, what is that in the wicked more than the godly, that is damned? With the place where, and the nature of that damnation.

Tenthly, If God be in all, why are not all things one in God? And if they be all comprehended as one in God how cometh it they are two distinct from God, yea so titled from the scripture? Now if scripture were indited by God the question will be, why it speaks not of these things, as they are in God, but relates two distinct titles, two opposites the one for God, the other against God? And whether that scripture so contradictory be not the original or instrumental cause by which the creation becomes blinded, divided, yea destroyed in worshipping that for God, which in the original is no God? I say, the query will be, whether the contradiction in the scripture be not the contradictions in the creation: and so long as there is not this scripture, there will be religions, and religious forms, not spirit, war, not peace, envy, not love the teachings of men, not the teaching of Godyea in conclusion there will be gods, and not God: no not that God that is all in the Alpha og Omega the God yesterday, and today, and forever.


On September 19, 2018, Clarkson announced she would he hosting her own variety talk show. "I love connecting with people, playing games, music and finding ways to help or give back to communities/organizations," Clarkson said. "Having my own talk show where I get to do all of these things is pretty much a dream job!" The Kelly Clarkson Show premiered one year later, on September 9, 2019, with Dwayne Johnson serving as her first guest.

In collaboration with HarperCollins, Clark released her first children&aposs book, River Rose and the Magical Lullaby, in October 2016. A follow-up story, River Rose and the Magical Christmas, arrived in October 2017. Both books feature an original song written and performed by the artist.

Also in 2016, Clarkson collaborated with Janelle Monพ, Kelly Rowland, Lea Michele, Zendaya and Missy Elliott on Michelle Obama’s "This Is for My Girls" single to promote the first lady’s "Let Girls Learn" educational initiative.


Raske fakta

Locations: Main campus in Potsdam, New York, and hubs for graduate school and research satellites at the Capital Region Campus in Schenectady, as well as in Saranac Lake (Trudeau Institute) and Beacon, New York. Graduate courses are also taught online.

Main Campus: 640 wooded acres in Potsdam, New York, adjacent to the six-million-acre Adirondack Park.

President: Anthony G. Collins

Programs of Study: More than 91 in engineering, business, education, science, liberal arts and health professions

Degrees Granted: Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Professional Studies, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science, Master of Arts in Teaching, Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Physical Therapy

Enrollment:
4,000+ undergraduates and graduate students from 43 states, 50 countries

Faculty and Staff: 842

Student-Faculty Ratio: 9.9:1

Undergraduate Admission Profile:
32% in top 10% of high school graduating class

Study Abroad & Co-ops:
53 study abroad partner universities in 24 countries co-op opportunities

Friidrett:
Division I ice hockey (men’s and women’s) 18 Division III sports

Extracurricular:
200+ clubs and professional societies
144 intramural teams
Numerous competitive design teams
Collaboration Hubs to ideate and start new ventures

Fraternities:
Seven national two local

Sororities:
Four national

Living Alumni: 44,500+

The University's ties to New York State run deep. As British citizens representing the crown, Matthew Clarkson (#1) came to America in 1685 and in 1691, he assumed the duties of Secretary of the Colony of New York as granted to him by King William III. In 1692, he married Catharina Van Schaick of Albany and together they lived on a parcel on Fletcher Street, New York City (just a few blocks from Pier 26, where graduate education and K-12 outreach take place!). They were our Thomas S. Clarkson namesakes’ great, great, great, great, great grandparents!

Their son David (#1) (1694-1751) was born in 1694 and baptized in the Old Dutch Church on Garden Street. Educated in England as were two brothers who ran mercantiles in London and Amsterdam, David traded with profit and advantage in the colony of NY. He had a share of a winning ticket in the British lottery fund for the British Museum, which he invested in growing his business enterprises. He held joint interests in vessels as well as owned several of his own, which primarily imported into New York Harbor with European and East Indian goods. In 1732, he purchased for $390, one of seven lots on The Strand in New York City, now the corner of Whitehall and Pearl Streets and that was the Clarkson family home for four generations. That homestead later become the site of New York Corn Exchange.

David (#1) (1694-1751) was a member of the New York Assembly from 1739 to his death in 1751. He is buried in the Clarkson family vault in Old Trinity Church, NYC. His son, David (#2) (1726-1782) was active in mercantile exchanges and is listed as one of the 24 principals of the first governors of Kings College, now Columbia University, starting the family’s commitment to education. Note: David’s brother, Matthew (#2) (1758-1825), had a career in the military, including time as the chief aid to General Benedict Arnold during key battles of the Revolutionary War including Burgoyne’s surrender (depicted in the US Capitol Rotunda) and later served Secretary of War / Major General Lincoln where he served as Lincoln’s Assistant Secretary of War.

Following the Revolutionary War to repay debt to creditors like the Clarkson family, David’s (#2) (1726-1782) nephew, who was also named David (#3) (1760-1815), was one of the original purchasers of the town of Potsdam, NY in 1804 – part of 10 towns parceled off south of the St. Lawrence River to act as buffer to the British Tories who had sought refuge in Canada and near where many of the Forts along the St. Lawrence River (some 20 miles north of Potsdam) were still in the hands of the British Army. Following the War of 1812 and forest cuttings for roads to get the settlements along the Raquette River, David (#3) (1760-1815) ’s son John Charleton Clarkson was the first to fully settle and live in Potsdam and built Holcroft House in 1824, where Clarkson University’s Office of Admissions is now located.

David (#2) (1726-1782)’s seventh child was Thomas Streatfield Clarkson (#1) (1763-1844), who lived at 33 Broadway in NYC. His 5th of 11 children carried the same name of Thomas Streatfield Clarkson (#2) (1799-1873) and with his wife, Elizabeth, came to live in Potsdam in 1840 and they took over from John building the farming, quarry and lumber enterprises in the North Country. The family had frequent travel and engagements in NYC. Their son, Thomas S. Clarkson (#3) (1837-1894) is the namesake of Clarkson University.

While the Clarkson family had considerable means, they exemplified the new American work ethic and required all of the sons to learn a trade. Thomas S. Clarkson and his brother, Levinus, ran the family's farm where the main Clarkson campus is located until Levinus' death.

Thomas S. Clarkson (#3) also engaged in other business endeavors in Potsdam and the North Country region including developing the first local electrical power plants, post-Civil War housing for the poor, and the first sewer system in the area (keeping the Typhoid Fever epidemic at bay from the local residents) and operating large sandstone quarries on the Raquette River. In addition to the many structures on campus, such as Old Main, Woodstock Lodge, and numerous fireplaces, entryways, etc., some of the best examples of this distinctive red sandstone from this quarry can be viewed as the accent stone over the windows of the Canadian Parliament in Ottawa, Ontario as well as the primary building materials for the All Saints Cathedral in Albany.

Thomas S. Clarkson and a cousin founded the Potsdam Public Library and Reading Room, teaching local workers how to read, and offered a tuition-free night school teaching mechanical drawing. It is said that Thomas S. Clarkson gave away work, not charity, and many projects for the public good were financed in this way giving people means, dignity and practical skills to carry them into the future.

In August 1894, Thomas S. Clarkson was in a severe accident in his sandstone quarry just upriver from Potsdam. When a worker was in danger of being crushed by a large derrick pump, he pushed him out of the way risking his own life. Clarkson was crushed against a wall by the swinging pump, sustaining severe internal injuries. While a doctor from Montreal was summoned to aid him, he died five days later.

After his death, Clarkson's three sisters – Elizabeth, Frederica, Lavinia -- and niece, Annie, decided to create a school, which would stand in memorial to this beloved entrepreneur, humanitarian and community member that obituaries referenced as “everyone’s friend.” The school was founded in 1896 and was called the Thomas S. Clarkson Memorial School of Technology before it later became the Clarkson College of Technology in 1912 (due to creation of the new State University of New York and registration of all colleges), and later Clarkson University in 1984.

The motto in Clarkson’s seal, "A Workman That Needeth Not to be Ashamed," is taken from Thomas S. Clarkson's favorite biblical verse in the Book of Timothy.

Robert Clarkson, CEO of American Express, served on the board at the mid-20th century and introduced many of the corporate partners to the institution. Today, Bayard D. Clarkson Sr. MD, a WWII Veteran, is a member of Sloan-Kettering Institute and lives in New York City. He has been a member of Clarkson University’s Board of Trustees since 1967. His son, Bayard D. Clarkson, Jr. MD in private practice is also is a member of our Board of Trustees.


Trift and skill

Researches into John Kilner, Jeremy's great-great-great grandfather, born in 1792, revealed that he was once an employee in a glass factory. He set up a glassworks with friends and through thrift and skill turned the business into a massive success. Industrialisation and growing prosperity increased the demand for the production of glasses, jars and bottles, and soon John possessed two factories in south Yorkshire.

He died in 1857, and the firm was taken over by his four sons, George (Jeremy's great-great grandfather), William, John and Caleb. Each learned their trade on the factory floor, and the firm, then known as Kilner Brothers, continued to thrive and flourish.

Caleb, the youngest, was given the job of opening a London warehouse for the firm. This warehouse was used to store Kilner products so they could be transported all over the world.


Laurence Fishburne's new series investigates biggest unexplained puzzles in history

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NASA reveals the mysteries behind Black Holes

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But now Hollywood star Laurence Fishburne is investigating stranger things slightly closer to home &ndash the biggest unexplained puzzles in history. His new TV series will tackle everything from the Roswell aliens to the possibility that Abraham Lincoln&rsquos assassin John Wilkes Booth faked his own death. It starts on Tuesday with an episode called The Titanic&rsquos Lost Evidence.

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The hour-long documentary examines the private papers of Lord Mersey, who headed the official investigation into the 1912 disaster, and considers the part human error played in the tragic sinking of RMS Titanic.

A judge&rsquos notes show he was worried by the Titanic&rsquos lack of lifeboat drills and its failure to slow down the night it sank, despite ice warnings from other vessels.

Atlanta-born Laurence, 59, who narrated History&rsquos Greatest Mysteries over the summer, said: &ldquoWe also explore events such as Shackleton&rsquos lost ship the Endurance, which he abandoned when it got stuck in the Antarctic ice and was crushed.&rdquo

The team used underwater robots, not dissimilar to the spy drones used in The Matrix, and a 14,000-ton ice-breaker ship to search for the wreck of the Endurance under the ice.

Laurence's new TV series will investigate the biggest unexplained puzzles in history (Image: Getty)

Explorer Ernest Shackleton led his 27-man crew to safety &ndash a journey that took more than six months in &ldquosome of the harshest conditions imaginable&rdquo.

Laurence, who also starred in Ant-Man & The Wasp, John Wick and TV&rsquos CSI, continued: &ldquoI was also fascinated by the case of DB Cooper, the alias assumed by the man behind the biggest unsolved hijacking of the century.&rdquo

Cooper, whose real identity is unknown, seized a Boeing 707 between Portland and Seattle in 1971, extorted the equivalent of $1,260,000 in ransom money, and then escaped by parachute.

&ldquoIt&rsquos the only unsolved case of air piracy in commercial aviation history and we look at the speculation that he might still be alive &ndash and who he might really be,&rdquo said Laurence. &ldquoThen there is the journal found at Roswell which reveals what really happened there. And we ask if John Wilkes Booth faked his own death.&rdquo

Actor Booth, a Confederate sympathiser, is believed to have been cornered and killed after a desperate shoot-out in a barn in northern Virginia. But the series questions Booth&rsquos descendants about claims the killer evaded justice and lived for decades undetected following his murder of US President Lincoln in 1865.

Laurence said: &ldquoI&rsquom a bit of history buff and I&rsquove always loved a good mystery, so it was a real pleasure to make this series.&rdquo He joked that he spent the first Californian lockdown &ldquoreading my old journals and realising that I was as crazy as hell&rdquo. He added: &ldquoBut I was so grateful to be back and working with this series.

&ldquoWe are so blessed in our industry to be able to do what we do. By the grace of God, we can bring a little light and bring a little joy into people&rsquos lives.&rdquo

Laurence confirmed that he will not be appearing in the forthcoming Matrix 4, but said: &ldquoI&rsquom excited to see what the story will be because I&rsquom a fan of the series. I hope it does well.&rdquo

● History&rsquos Greatest Mysteries with Laurence Fishburne begins on Sky History on Tuesday


As Peter Bennett said, the air gap layer is probably a Gerber containing areas to be milled out of the layers, possibly the top and bottom prepreg, leaving the core intact. Since there are only 4 copper layers, this would likely leave open cavities on the top and bottom with copper potentially exposed on the power/ground layers.

This could be used to recess components into the PCB.

In some cases, components are completely embedded into the PCB.

I believe this process typically would have the (in this case) core run through a pick and place machine, soldered, cleaned and then laminated and the holes plated through with the top and bottom prepreg.

Here is an example of a stackup with completely embedded components from Altium:

An air gap is a physical less than conductive distance between two sections of a electronic circuit. It is intended to enforce a non conductive section between two points using non conductive (in normal circumstances) material. This air gap is chosen based on the typical working voltage of the circuit. A mains voltage air gap will be smaller than an air gap for 1k volt or higher circuits, for example. The spacing between two multi killivolt paths will be much larger than the spacing between two bare mains voltage paths.

The typical air gap is calculated based on the conductivity of atmosphere (a mix of various gases). Of atmosphere would conduct at that voltage at a given distance, the air gap is not enough.

An air gap is for creepage an clearance for high voltages to meet regulatory. I'll bet the designers have a different depth on the PCB for the milling trace and they use that distance in the stack up to achieve a custom depth. This is probably so the depth will show up in the 3D design or for manufacturing, and a milling track could be created with a custom depth in the PCB.

So if the design is for a power supply or something with creep-age and clearance then that's what it is. If it actually is an air gap layer I'd be shocked.

Edit: One other place I have seen air gaps (which this probably is) is in rigid flat flex PCB's which have kapton inner layers and FR4 outer layers. The air gap is to promote flexibility if you have more than 2 kapton inner layers as shown in the 8 layer stackup.

As the question asked I looked into WikiPedia and found this statement on AIR GAP:

By insulating copper wires within a chip with vacuum holes, capacitance can be minimized enabling chips to work faster or draw less power. A vacuum is believed to be the ultimate insulator for what is known as wiring capacitance, which occurs when two adjacent wires on a chip draw electrical energy from one another, generating undesirable heat and slowing the speed at which data can move through a chip. IBM estimates that this technology alone can lead to 35% higher speeds in current flow or 15% lower power consumption.

Here also is the manufacturing tech from IBM on air gaps from WikiPedia:

IBM researchers have figured out a way to manufacture these "airgaps" on a massive scale, using the self-assembly properties of certain polymers, and then combine this with regular CMOS manufacturing techniques, saving enormous resources since they don't have to retool the entire process. When making the chips the entire wafer is prepared with a polymer material that when removed at a later stage leaves trillions of holes, just 20 nanometers in diameter, evenly spaced. Even though the name suggests that the holes are filled with air, they are in fact filled with nothing, vacuum. IBM has already proven this technique in their labs, and is already deployed in their manufacturing plant in East Fishkill, New York where they have made prototype POWER6 processors using this technology. Full scale deployment is scheduled for IBM's 45 nm node in 2009 after which this technology will also be available to IBM's customers.

As an after thought air gap could refer to spark gap for when circuit reverses current when hit buy a surge of energy like a lighting or over charging your device.


Clarkson History

In 1808, fifteen year old Warren Clarkson and his brother Joshua left their home in Albany, New York to seek their fortune in Canada. They had been invited to come work for a friend of the family who had bought land near Lake Ontario. Warren liked the area very much and decided to stay. He worked hard so that someday he would be able to own property. When he was twenty-six he had saved enough money to buy land and build a home. Warren married and began to raise a family. As the years went by Warren bought more land. He built the community's first store along the stagecoach trail. Fifteen years later the town council named this trail Clarkson Road.

A post office was opened in the family store and William Clarkson, Warren's son became the postmaster. For the next forty five years a member of the Clarkson family would run the post office. Clarkson community never grew very large. It had a few houses and shops along Clarkson Road, a railway station, a school, and a church. Less than one hundred people lived in this quiet community.

In 1856, Captain Edward Sutherland (1794-1885) moved to Clarkson with his seven children. A widower, he purchased "Bush's Inn," a former inn and coach house that was the halfway point between Hamilton, Ontario and Toronto (this building, a private residence, still stands on Clarkson Road South). Here, he is said to have introduced both strawberry and raspberry cultivation to the area. Clarkson eventually became the "Strawberry Capital of Ontario," and commercial fruit farming expanded in the area through the rest of the 19th and into the early 20th century. In 1915, a sign was erected at the Clarkson railway station declaring "Through this station passes more strawberries than any other station in Ontario." The Sutherlands later became connected by marriage to the Harrises of Benares (see "Sites of Interest" below).


Se videoen: Как проходит 2021 год Джереми Кларксона? Русские субтитры


Kommentarer:

  1. Zukinos

    Det er synd at jeg nå ikke kan uttrykke - jeg er sen på et møte. Men jeg kommer tilbake - jeg vil nødvendigvis skrive at jeg tenker på dette spørsmålet.

  2. Layden

    In my opinion, you are mistaken.

  3. Penleigh

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