Mord tenner Lincoln County War

Mord tenner Lincoln County War


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Lange ulmende spenninger i Lincoln County, New Mexico, eksploderer i en blodig skytingskrig da våpenmenn dreper den engelske rancher John Tunstall.

Tunstall hadde etablert en stor gårdsdrift i Lincoln County to år tidligere i 1876, og gikk midt i en farlig politisk og økonomisk rivalisering om kontroll over regionen. To irsk-amerikanere, J.J. Dolan og L.G. Murphy, drev en dagligvarebutikk kalt The House, som kontrollerte tilgangen til lukrative biffkontrakter med regjeringen. De store rancherne, ledet av John Chisum og Alexander McSween, trodde ikke at kjøpmenn skulle dominere storfekjøttmarkedene og begynte å utfordre The House.

Tunstall, en velstående ung engelsk emigrant, skjønte snart at hans interesser var hos Chisum og McSween i denne konflikten, og han ble leder for anti-husstyrkene. Han vant Dolans og Murphys varige fiendskap ved å etablere en konkurrerende dagligvarebutikk i Lincoln. I 1877 truet maktkampen med å bli åpenbart voldelig, og Tunstall begynte å ansette unge bevæpnede menn for beskyttelse, inkludert den snart beryktede William Bonney, bedre kjent som Billy the Kid.

Tidlig neste år brukte The House sine betydelige politiske ressurser til å slå tilbake på Tunstall, og vant en rettskjennelse som krevde at Tunstall skulle overlate noen av hestene hans til å betale en utestående gjeld. Da Tunstall nektet å snu hestene, sendte den huskontrollerte lensmannen i Lincoln County en posse sammen med William Morton, en annen støttespiller i huset, for å ta dem. Billy the Kid og flere andre Tunstall -hender jobbet på ranchen da de så possen som nærmet seg. I undertall flyktet mennene, men de hadde ikke gått langt før de så Tunstall galoppere rett opp til posse for å protestere mot tilstedeværelsen på eiendommen hans. Mens Billy og de andre så på, dro Morton pistolen og skjøt Tunstall med en kule i hodet.

Selv om han ikke hadde jobbet lenge for Tunstall, gråt Billy the Kid dypt over dette kaldblodige drapet, og han begynte umiddelbart en voldetta mot The House og dets allierte. Lincoln County ble en krigssone, og begge sider begynte en storm med onde drap. I juli rådet The House, etter å ha lagt McSween til sine ofre. Imidlertid ville kampene fortsette å bryte ut sporadisk til 1884, da Chisum døde av naturlige årsaker, og The House endelig fikk full kontroll over Lincoln County. På den tiden hadde Billy the Kid allerede vært død i tre år, skutt av Lincoln County Sheriff Pat Garrett.


Mord tenner Lincoln County War - HISTORIE

Lincoln County -krigen begynte i 1878 i Lincoln County, New Mexico. På den tiden var Lincoln County det største fylket i landet, da det dekket omtrent 1/5 av territoriet i New Mexico.

I begynnelsen av 1870 -årene eide to storfeoppdrettere, Lawrence Murphy og James Dolan den eneste butikken i hele fylket, Murphy & Dolan Mercantile and Banking. Å ha penger og kontrollere alle forsyningene i Lincoln County, ga dem også veldig innflytelsesrike bånd i New Mexico, og dette tillot dem å få svært lukrative kontrakter med det amerikanske militæret i Fort Stanton.

Å være den eneste butikken i fylket tillot Murphy og Dolan å nevne sine egne priser, og dette gjorde dem i stand til å tjene en stor fortjeneste, til stor sorg for de mindre rancher i området, som ble tvunget til å betale de høye prisene for varer og forsyninger og måtte godta lave priser på storfeet sitt. Murphy og Dolan kontrollerte store deler av økonomien og hadde også fylkets rettshåndhevelse i lommen. Dette ga de mindre rankerne ikke noe annet valg enn å bøye seg for de mektige mennene.

I 1877 opprettet en advokat ved navn Alex McSween og en engelsk slagmann og bankmann ved navn John Tunstall en butikk i nærheten av Murphys sted. H.H. Tunstall og kompaniet var en velkommen lettelse for de mindre rankerne, og de ble også støttet av en stor storfe som heter John Chisum. Opprørt av dette, prøvde Dolan alt han kunne for å få Tunstall inn i en pistolkamp, ​​men Tunstall nektet å ty til vold. I stedet leide Tunstall en gruppe unge menn som storfevakter. Denne gruppen menn, ledet av den beryktede Billy the Kid, ble kjent som Regulatorene.

Opprørt av Tunstall og regulatorene, i februar 1878, kunne Murphy og Dolan få en rettskjennelse for at de skulle få noen av Tunstalls storfe til å betale for en gammel gjeld. Lensmannen i Lincoln County William Brady dannet en posse for å henrette fullmakten, og da de kom inn i Tunstalls land, predikerte Tunstall mennene på landet hans og ble deretter skutt og drept for det. Det ble også antatt at Brady ble ansatt av Murphy og Dolan for å drepe Tunstall uansett.

Dette drapet startet Lincoln County -krigen, og Billy the Kid tok enda større krenkelse av dette drapet fordi "John Tunstall var den eneste personen som ga Billy the Kid en pause og behandlet ham som en mann." Billy the Kid sverget hevn for Tunstalls drap, og i løpet av de neste månedene ble det hevn.

Lincoln County -krigen ble offisielt avsluttet i november 1878 da president Rutherford Hayes forkastet den korrupte guvernøren i New Mexico og erstattet ham. Nitten mennesker ble drept i denne krigen inkludert sheriff Brady, et par av hans varamedlemmer og til og med Alex McSween, da huset hans ble brent og ble skutt da han løp ut av den brennende bygningen. Alle i regulatorene fikk amnesti av den nye guvernøren, alle unntatt Billy the Kid. Han var fortsatt etterlyst for drapet på sheriff Brady, og det ble satt en dusør på fem hundre dollar på hodet og en mann ved navn Pat Garrett, en tidligere venn av fredløs, skjøt og drepte Billy the Kid, men ikke før i juli 1881.

I popkulturen ble historien om Lincoln County War fortalt i en film kalt Chisum med John Wayne i hovedrollen som John Chisum.

Innholdsrett og kopi 2021 av Vance R. Rowe. Alle rettigheter forbeholdt.
Dette innholdet ble skrevet av Vance R. Rowe. Hvis du ønsker å bruke dette innholdet på noen måte, trenger du skriftlig tillatelse. Kontakt Amanda Sedlak-Hevener for detaljer.


Innhold

Tunstall ble født i 1853 i Hackney, London. Familien hans var i øvre middelklasse og faren var en forretningsmann, med interesser i Canada så vel som Storbritannia. Han bodde noen av barndommen i Belsize Park. [ trenger Kilde ]

I en alder av 19 emigrerte Tunstall til Victoria, British Columbia, Canada i august 1872 for å jobbe på Turner, Beeton & amp Tunstall, en butikk der faren var partner. Han hadde også litt kapital å investere. [1]

Tunstall forlot Canada for vest i USA i februar 1876. Han tilbrakte seks måneder med å undersøke saueretninger i California, men bestemte seg for å prøve New Mexico, der land var billigere og mer rikelig for oppdrett. Like etter at han kom til territorialhovedstaden Santa Fe, møtte han advokat Alexander McSween.

Han fortalte ham om de potensielt store fortjenestene som skulle oppnås i Lincoln County. Det ble raskt avgjort. McSween var alliert med John Chisum, (1824–1884), eieren av en stor ranch og over 100 000 storfe. McSween ble en forretningspartner for Tunstall, og de søkte begge Chisums støtte.

Den unge engelskmannen kjøpte en ranch på Rio Feliz, omtrent 48 kilometer nesten rett sør for byen Lincoln, og begynte å drive virksomhet som en husmann. I byen opprettet han også en merkantilbutikk og bank nedover veien fra Murphy & amp Dolan handels- og bankvirksomhet. Det hadde blitt etablert noen år tidligere av James Dolan, Lawrence Murphy og John H. Riley, som alle var irske immigranter. Murphy-Dolan-butikken ble i daglig tale kjent som "The House".

Murphy og Dolan drev byen og det omkringliggende fylket Lincoln som om området var deres styre. Enhver forretningstransaksjon av konsekvens i fylket gikk gjennom dem. De kontrollerte domstolene. Sheriffen i Lincoln County, William J. Brady, var en irsk innvandrer fra County Cavan og var alliert til huset.

Tunstall var ivrig etter å tjene penger i Lincoln County. Tilbyr anstendig priser og rimelige handler i butikken hans, tiltrukket han lokalbefolkningen som var ivrige etter å finne en konkurrent til Murphy og Dolan. I sine brev til familien i London sa Tunstall at han ikke bare hadde til hensikt å sette Murphy og Dolan av, men å bli så mektig at halvparten av hver dollar som ble tjent av noen i Lincoln County ville havne i lommen. Han skrev også om hvordan han snart ville heve Tunstalls fra middelklassen til de høyeste nivåene i det britiske høflige samfunnet.

Tunstalls merkantile virksomhet satte ham i konflikt med den mektige politiske, økonomiske og rettslige strukturen som styrte New Mexico -territoriet. Denne gruppen menn var kjent som Santa Fe -ringen. Ringmedlemmer inkluderte Thomas Catron (1840-1921), sjefen, som var justisminister for New Mexico Territory. Catron eide 3 000 000 dekar (12 000 km 2) land, og var en av de største grunneierne i USAs historie. Catron nummererte følgende menn blant sine kolleger: Samuel Beach Axtell [1819-1891], territoriell guvernør, som ble sparket for korrupsjon av 19. president Rutherford B. Hayes Warren Henry Bristol [1823-1890], territorial dommer og William L. Rynerson [1828-1893], en distriktsadvokat, som hadde myrdet John P. Slough, overdommer i New Mexico, og slapp unna med det. Catron hadde pant i "The House", så hadde en direkte interesse i suksessen i Lincoln.

Da for mange av innbyggerne i Lincoln byttet virksomhet til Tunstalls butikk, begynte Murphy-Dolan å gå i konkurs, og Catrons bunnlinje ble påvirket. Murphy og Dolan prøvde å sette Tunstall i drift, først trakasserte ham lovlig og deretter prøvde å tvinge ham til et skuddveksling. De leide bevæpnede menn, hvorav de fleste var medlemmer av Jesse Evans Gang, aka "Guttene."

Tunstall rekrutterte egne støttespillere: et halvt dusin lokale småbrukere og cowboyer fra de som mislikte Murphy og Dolan. Disse mennene jobbet på gården hans og beskyttet ham mens han prøvde å løse konflikten med Murphy/Dolan. En av Tunstalls ansatte var den 18 år gamle William Bonney (aka Henry McCarty, aka William Henry Antrim, aka El Chivato, 1859 [?]- 1881). Han ble senere kalt "Billy the Kid" da han ledet en egen gjeng.

Februar 1878 kjørte Tunstall, Richard M. Brewer, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Robert Widenmann, Fred Waite og William Bonney ni hester fra Tunstalls ranch på Rio Feliz til Lincoln. En pose deputert av Lincoln Sheriff Brady dro til Tunstalls ranch på Feliz for å feste storfeet sitt på en ordre som hadde blitt utstedt mot forretningspartneren hans, McSween. Da han fant Tunstall, hendene og hestene som var borte, brøt en sub-posse fra hovedposen og forfulgte. Men disse hestene var ikke dekket av noen rettslige skritt.

Evans, Hill, Morton (og sannsynligvis Frank Baker) red videre etter Tunstall. Evans, Morton og Hill fanget Tunstall og mennene hans noen kilometer fra Lincoln, i et område dekket av kratt. Tunstall, de ni hestene og hendene hans var spredt ut langs den smale stien. Bonney, som kjørte drag, varslet de andre. Varamedlemmene begynte å skyte uten forvarsel. Tunstalls hender galopperte av gården gjennom børsten til en bakketopp med utsikt over stien. Tunstall ble først hos hestene sine, så red han bort, men ble forfulgt av de tre varamedlemmer. [ trenger Kilde ]

Bare de tre varamedlemmer overlevde konfrontasjonen. De fleste historikere tror at Tunstall sannsynligvis overga seg. Han ble rapportert som skutt gjennom brystet med et rifle, og skutt i bakhodet med en revolver. Posen forfalsket åstedet, fjernet Tunstalls pistol og skjøt den, og arrangerte den deretter nær kroppen hans. Denne typen oppsett var en vanlig gambit i det ville vesten. Ikke en fra Tunstall -gruppen trodde på varamedlemmers konto for "motstand mot arrestasjon". [ trenger Kilde ]

Historikeren Robert Utley antyder at Tunstall kan ha prøvd å forsvare seg da han ble hjørnet av Morton, Hill og Evans. Joel Jacobsen bemerker at Tunstall døde noen hundre meter fra hestene hans, noe som tyder på at posse ønsket ham i stedet for hestene. Andre bevis og vitnesbyrd satte spørsmålstegn ved den offisielle historien som de tre varamedlemmer hevdet og støttet av Murphy-Dolan-fraksjonen.

Tunstalls drap antente Lincoln County War. Bonney ble spesielt påvirket av drapet ettersom Tunstall alltid hadde behandlet ham godt.

Bonney, Richard M. Brewer, Chavez y Chavez, Doc Scurlock, Charlie Bowdre, George Coe, Frank Coe, Jim French, Frank McNab og andre ansatte og venner av Tunstall's dro til Lincoln County Justice of the Peace, "Squire" John Wilson . Han viste seg sympatisk for deres sak og sverget dem alle som spesielle konstabler for å hente inn Tunstalls mordere. Denne posen var lovlig og ledet av Richard "Dick" Brewer, en respektert ranchseier som også hadde vært Tunstalls leder. De nyoppførte fredsoffiserene kalte seg regulatorer og gikk etter Evans, Morton, Hill og Baker og de andre som var involvert i Tunstalls død. Dermed syklet to lovlig deputerte eiere på fri fot i Lincoln i krig med hverandre.

Regulatorene sporet opp og fanget Morton og Baker 6. mars og drepte dem under en påstått flukt. Etter at de kom tilbake til Lincoln, sa de at de to mennene hadde drept McCloskey fra regulatorene. Samme dag som Morton og Baker ble drept, Evans og Tom Hill raslet sauer der Hill ble drept og Evans ble såret av sauebonden. Flere andre drap, begått av både tilsynsmyndighetene og våpenmennene leid av Murphy-Dolan, fulgte.

På aprilskjørtens dag 1878 drepte regulatorene William Brady, lensmannen i Lincoln, sammen med hans stedfortreder, George Hindemann. Et halvt dusin regulatorer, inkludert Bonney, Jim French og Frank McNab, utførte represaliene. Regulatorene drepte Buckshot Roberts ved Blazer's Mills, sørvest for Lincoln i området nå innenfor Mescalero Apache -reservatet. Mannen deres, Richard Brewer, døde også i denne skytingen.

Perioden 15. juli til 19. juli 1878, Battle of Lincoln, ble kjent som "The Five-Day Battle". Den amerikanske hæren fra Fort Stanton i nærheten, under kommando av oberst Nathan Dudley, grep inn i kampen og beseiret regulatorene. Dudley truet tilsynsmyndighetene mens Dolanittene spankulerte langs Lincolns gate. En ny føderal lov fra 1878, vedtatt av et demokratisk flertall i kongressen og som reaksjon på den tidligere bruken av militære styrker i sørlige stater for å undertrykke vold rettet mot frigivne i gjenoppbyggingstiden, forbød hæren å gripe inn i sivile konflikter.

Etter tapet for Dolan-styrkene i femdagersslaget, forlot regulatorene og deres støttespillere raskt byen. Bonney ble igjen i New Mexico og flyttet til Fort Sumner, New Mexico, 160 miles vest for Texas Panhandle, ved Pecos -elven. Bonney opererte som banditt i området med sin egen gjeng, og overlevde til 14. juli 1881, da han ble skutt og drept på Fort Sumner av lensmann Pat Garrett fra Lincoln County. Garrett hadde fått mandat til å kvitte seg med Billy the Kid og gjengen hans.


FELLES LOV

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (1841-1935), sønn av en fremtredende Boston-familie, veteran fra borgerkrigen, og en av de mest innflytelsesrike høyesterettsdommerne i amerikansk historie, hevdet at erfaring var like viktig som juridisk prinsipp i livet til loven.

Lovens liv har ikke vært logisk, det har vært erfaring. Tidens følte nødvendigheter, de utbredte moralske og politiske teorier, intuisjoner av offentlig politikk, erklærte eller ubevisste, til og med fordommer som dommerne deler med sine medmennesker, har hatt mye mer å gjøre enn syllogismen for å fastsette reglene som menn skal styres av. Loven legemliggjør historien om en nasjonens utvikling gjennom mange århundrer, og den kan ikke behandles som om den bare inneholdt aksiomer og sammenhenger i en matematikkbok. For å vite hva det er, må vi vite hva det har vært, og hva det pleier å bli. Vi må vekselvis konsultere historie og eksisterende lovverksteorier. . . . Lovens innhold til enhver tid samsvarer nesten, så langt det går, med det som da forstås å være praktisk, men dets form og maskineri, og i hvilken grad den er i stand til å finne ønskede resultater, avhenger veldig mye på fortiden.

Kilde: Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Fellesloven (Boston: Little, Brown, 1881).


Den farligste gaten i Amerika På 1870 -tallet var Lincoln, New Mexico Territory, mordhovedstaden i Amerika.

"Minst 200 menn har blitt drept i Lincoln County de siste tre årene, men jeg drepte ikke alle."
- Billy The Kid, som sitert i Daglig ny meksikansk28. mars 1881

Lincoln County -krigen var usedvanlig voldelig, og mye av den volden skjedde i den lille byen Lincoln, New Mexico. Men drap og kaos var fakta i livet der lenge før Billy the Kid og regulatorene kolliderte med tilhengere av L.G. Murphy. Faktisk ble hele Lincolns historie på slutten av 1800 -tallet tegnet med tragiske ulykker, meningsløs vold, tvilsomme eksempler på grenserettferdighet og hevnhandlinger. Bare i løpet av tiåret på 1870-tallet ble mer enn 50 mennesker drept langs den en kilometer lange støvete veien som svingte gjennom Lincoln-et faktum som førte til at president Rutherford B. Hayes i 1878 erklærte det "The Most Dangerous Street in America. ”

Følgende er bare noen få eksempler på den dødelige volden som plaget Lincoln i disse årene. Noen av de som døde var uskyldige ofre, noen var beryktede kriminelle, men de fleste var bare typiske innbyggere ved den vestlige grensen. De var tøffe, uavhengige mennesker hvis liv gjenspeilte den brutale virkeligheten under forholdene de levde under.

Tragiske ulykker

Opprinnelig kjent som La Placita, Lincoln, New Mexico, ser veldig fredelig ut på dette tidlige fotografiet, men det var hjemmet til en dødelig gate.
- Alle bilder og kunstverk Hilsen True West Archives Med mindre annet er nevnt -

2. september 1876 drepte Josiah “Doc” Scurlock ved et uhell vennen Mike Harkins i snekkerbutikken bak Murphy-Dolan Store. Scurlock viste frem sin nye "selvkokkende pistol" da den ved et uhell ble tømt. Kulen traff Harkins like under venstre brystvorte og stakk hull i hjertet hans og drepte ham øyeblikkelig.

To år senere - 18. februar 1878 - ble Lincoln rystet av nyheter om drapet på John H. Tunstall. Kaptein George Purington sendte noen få soldater fra Fort Stanton til Lincoln dagen etter i håp om å beholde freden. Så, 21. februar, sendte han en utsendelsesrytter til Lincoln med melding om løsrivelsen. Rytteren, uvitende om at en vaktpost var plassert i vestenden av byen, forsøkte å galoppere forbi tinghuset. Vaktposten, Pvt. Gates klarte ikke å gjenkjenne sin trooper, selv om begge var medlemmer av det samme selskapet i det berømte 9. amerikanske kavaleriet. Gates skjøt bare en gang, men Pvt. Edward Brooks, en 29 år gammel innfødt i Kentucky, var død da han falt fra salen.

Meningsløs vold

På kvelden 21. oktober 1874 spiste Lyon Phillipowski et par drinker i biljardrommet på L.G. Murphy & amp Company -butikk. Phillipowski var gift med Teresa Padilla, og de hadde en åtte år gammel datter ved navn Lolita. Han var også nestleder i Lincoln County. Da det kom tid for bartender William Burns å lukke opp, var Phillipowski sint. Han var ikke klar til å reise hjem. Burns insisterte. Phillipowski advarte illevarslende Burns om at han ville "se" ham utenfor. Sikkert nok, da Burns gikk, nærmet Phillipowski seg og stakk hånden etter pistolen hans - Burns var klar, og Phillipowski kollapset, dødelig såret, ut på den gjørmete gaten. Han døde morgenen etter.

Oktober 1875 - tidligere lensmann Alexander H. "Ham" Mills konfronterte Gregorio Valenzuela langs gaten i Lincoln. Valenzuela og Mills hadde vært naboer i San Patricio i 1870, så hadde kjent hverandre i flere år. Mills skyldte Valenzuela penger, men var enten ikke i stand til eller uvillig til å betale. De argumenterte, og Valenzuela kalte Mills en "forbannet Gringo." Mills dro frem en pistol og skjøt Valenzuela, en ektemann og far, død. Han ble dømt for drap i femte grad, men L.G. Murphy fikk benådning for Mills fra guvernør Samuel B. Axtell.

Frontier Justice?

Som murer deltok George Peppin i byggingen av flere bygninger i Lincoln, inkludert McSween -hjemmet. Som lensmann foretar Peppin og hans mann et dødelig angrep på McSween -huset og ødelegger det.
- Hilsen Robert G. McCubbin -

William Wilson skryte en gang av at han hadde gjort tid i Sing Sing fengsel. Han drev vestover til Lincoln, og 1. august 1875 myrdet han Robert Casey nær Wortley Hotel. Wilson hevdet at Casey skyldte ham 8 dollar i lønn. Han ble arrestert, prøvd for drap og dømt til døden ved å henge. Dette var den første lovlige henger i Lincoln County, og lensmann Saturnino Baca var engstelig for å få det riktig. Den fastsatte morgenen - 10. desember 1875 - ble Wilson brakt til galgen under vakt. Setningen ble lest opp høyt da hengeren forberedte Wilson på den "lange dråpen", og deretter ble fellen sprunget.

Dessverre klarte ikke fallet å knekke Wilsons nakke. Kroppen hans danset på slutten av tauet i flere minutter, men til slutt sluttet han å slite. Sheriff Baca trodde ham død og klippet tauet. Publikum ble invitert til å se restene, og en lokal kvinne innså at Wilson fortsatt pustet. Sheriff Baca lot ikke William forlate en jobb halvveis ferdig, og han ble hevet opp igjen på galgen og hengt for en andre - og barmhjertig siste gang.

George Washington, en tidligere ansatt i AA McSween, prøvde å "skyte en løshund" i juni 1879 hjemme hos ham i nærheten av ruinene av McSween House. På en eller annen måte traff en kule beregnet på den omstreifende Washingtons egen kone, Luisa Sanchez, og deres spedbarn, og drepte dem begge. Omstendighetene var svært tvilsomme, men det var ingen vitner. Senere, da Washington forsøkte å flykte med en tenåringsjente, ble det oppdaget uuttalte mistanker. Washington ble fanget, returnert til Lincoln, og sent en natt ble han tatt fra fengselet og lynsjert.

Hevn

En gang i begynnelsen av desember 1871 var 48 år gamle Avery M. Clenny innom Pete Bishop's salong i Lincoln. Clenny eide en butikk i Hondo og var i byen på forretningsreise. Han snakket kort med biskop, men biskop måtte gå til lageret for å hente noe. To yngre menn, George Van Sickle og Calvin Dodson, gikk deretter inn i salongen. Det er uklart hvorfor, men da Bishop kom tilbake, fant han Van Sickle og Dodson som administrerte et hardt slag mot Clenny. Biskop hentet en pistol som han beholdt bak baren og jaget Dodson og Van Sickle inn i gaten nær Montano Store og skjøt på begge mennene. Van Sickle overlevde ikke Cal Dodson.

Horrell -brødrene var en beryktet gruppe fredløse i Texas. En bror, Ben, karuslet i Lincoln med venner da han ble drept i en konfrontasjon med konstabel Juan Martinez 1. desember 1873. De overlevende brødrene Horrell grublet over tapet i omtrent tre uker, og deretter på kvelden 20. desember, de red inn i Lincoln bøyd på hevn. De hørte musikk komme fra Chapman's Saloon, og omringet bygningen og skjøt gjennom dører og vinduer. Musikken var for en bryllupsdans, og bygningen var overfylt med menn, kvinner og barn. Fire Lincoln -menn døde den kvelden: far til bruden Isidro Patron, Isidro Padilla, Mario Balazan og Jose Candelaria. To kvinner og en gutt ble såret. Ikke fornøyd, Horrells drepte minst åtte flere mennesker på vei tilbake til Texas.

Lincoln er mest kjent for sin tilknytning til Billy the Kid, Pat Garrett, L.G. Murphy og andre bemerkelsesverdige deltakere i Lincoln County War. Men byens arv etter vold strekker seg langt utover den feiden. Nesten hvert skritt man tar under en spasertur nedover fortauene til Lincolns hovedvei er forbundet med en annen dødelig hendelse. Det har utvilsomt oppnådd sitt presidentskille: Den farligste gaten i Amerika.

The Kid titter ut fra det røykfylte kjøkkenet mens han og McSween-mennene gjør seg klare til å ta en pause. Varmen må ha gjort det nesten uutholdelig.

José Chávez y Chávez er en av McSwens forsvarere som slipper unna.
- New Mexico State Records Center & amp Archives -

Anatomi av Killing Fields

Billy the Kid kom seg vel ut av McSween -huset, sammen med flere andre. Fem var ikke så heldige og endte med å dø i bakgården.

Det er en halv mil fra den ene enden av Lincoln til den andre, og på akkurat denne gaten ble 49 menn og en kvinne drept i den omtrent 10-årige perioden av Lincoln County War og dens etterspill. Omtrent halvveis, og i hjertet av drapsfeltene, ligger flere steder til venstre, der de fleste skytingsdødene skjedde.

En av stedfortrederne, Billy Mathews, blir ikke truffet, og han løper til Cisneros -tunet der han tar dekning bak et stakittgjerde. Han ser to menn løpe inn i gaten og skyte og slå Big Jim French i låret.

Natten til 19. juli 1878, i det som er kjent som "Big Killing" og "McSween Fight", ble minst fem menn drept da Murphy-Dolan-styrkene omringet McSween-fraksjonen og brente dem ut.

French and the Kid (som noen tror prøvde å hente Winchester som Brady hadde tatt fra ham tidligere) hotfoot den tilbake til veggen. Nestleder George Hindman blir truffet og falt. Brady, som blir truffet av et dusin baller, sier "Oh, Lord" og prøver å reise seg, men en ny skuddrunde treffer ham, og han faller tilbake, dødelig såret. Billy the Kid og seks av regulatorene er i korralen bak Tunsdall Store når de ser sheriff Brady ri inn til byen. De skyter bak en vegg på ti fot, og de bakholdsfaller Brady og fire varamedlemmer når de går til fots og går østover forbi butikken. Squire Wilson hakket løk i bakgården da en villkule fra
regulatorene som skjøt fra Tunstalls korral rev gjennom baken hans.

I forsøket på å rømme ut bakdøren til det brennende huset ble fem menn drept: Alexander McSween, Francisco Zamora, Vincente Romero, Harvey Morris og Robert Beckwith. En annen, Yginio Salazar, overlevde med alvorlige sår og kravlet avgårde. Han lever. Nesten naboen fra McSween -huset er Tunstall Store, hvor et tidligere bakhold av regulatorene resulterer i døden til sheriff Brady og hans stedfortreder George Hindman. Over gaten, som hakker løk i bakgården, blir Squire Wilson truffet av en villkule og faller fremover når den passerer gjennom baken hans.

Tim Roberts er visedirektør for New Mexico Historic Sites, ansvarlig for alle aspekter av bevaring og tolkning på tvers av statens åtte historiske steder og eiendommer. Han er den tidligere sjefen ved Lincoln og Fort Stanton Historic sites.

Scott Smith er for tiden instruksjonskoordinator ved Lincoln og Fort Stanton Historic Sites. Han har nesten 30 års erfaring med New Mexico Historic Sites, inkludert tid som manager på Fort Sumner og Coronado Historic sites.

Relaterte innlegg

Alder 9-12: Luke og Jenny Bartlett er på ferie i Lincoln, New Mexico, sammen med moren og hellip

Noen har kalt Grant County (NM) stedfortredende lensmann Dan Tucker "Dangerous Dan." Og pistolen hans og hellip

Til og med Don Russell, som utforsket Buffalo Bill Codys militære liv i detalj i hans & hellip


Johnson County War: 1892 invasjon av Northern Wyoming

5. april 1892 kjørte 52 væpnede menn på et privat, hemmelig tog nordover fra Cheyenne. Like utenfor Casper, Wyo., Byttet de til hest og fortsatte nordover mot Buffalo, Wyo., Johnson County -setet. Oppdraget deres var å skyte eller henge 70 menn navngitt på en liste båret av Frank Canton, en av lederne for denne invaderende styrken.

Inntrengerne (som de ble kjent) inkluderte noen av de mektigste feierne i Wyoming, deres beste ansatte og 23 innleide våpen. Invasjonen skyldtes mangeårige tvister mellom disse storfebaronene, som eide flokk i tusenvis, og små operatører, og de fleste drev akkurat nok storfe til å forsørge familiene sine. Arrangementet ble kalt Johnson County War. Mangeårige Wyoming -historiker T.A. Larson rangerte den som "den mest beryktede hendelsen i Wyomings historie."

Tallrike tingbøker inneholder verdifull informasjon om invasjonen, i likhet med andre regjeringsdokumenter, spesielt landfiler. Mest signifikant, etter invasjonen-noen ganger så mange som 40 år senere-publiserte slagmennene og deres allierte skrifter som inneholdt innleggelser som plutselig lyste sterkt lys på omstridte spørsmål. Fra disse omfangsrike dataene kommer klare fakta frem som sannheten om invasjonen og dens årsaker kan bestemmes ut fra.

Johnson County aviser dateres tilbake til august 1883, da ingen i Johnson County tenkte på fremtidige overraskende hendelser, og avisene er fulle av ærlige vurderinger av samfunnet. En lesning av avisene i Johnson County fjerner raskt oppfatningen, uttalt i andre Wyoming -aviser og andre rundt om i landet, at Buffalo var "den mest lovløse byen i landet", eller et fristed for "rekkevidde -pirater" som "nådeløst" stjal store storfe.

Kvegbaronene planla, organiserte og finansierte invasjonen og erklærte på forhånd og etterpå at de ikke hadde noe annet valg enn å ta drastiske tiltak for å beskytte eiendommen deres. De sa at de var ofre for massiv storfe som stjal i Johnson County, og lokale myndigheter gjorde ingenting for å beskytte flokkene sine. De erklærte videre at Buffalo var et useriøst samfunn der rustlere kontrollerte alt - politikk, domstoler og juryer. Disse juryene, sa storfe -baronene, nektet å dømme på fe -rasling, uansett hvor sterke bevisene var.

Johnson County -folk, derimot, trodde i stor grad at den virkelige årsaken til invasjonen var den store feienes besluttsomhet om å drive konkurrenter utenfor det åpne feltet som lagermennene ulovlig monopoliserte - for å stoppe dem som lovlig kan ta opp offentlig land under Homestead og Desert Land handler. Og innbyggerne i Johnson County sa at storfe -rasling var sterkt overdrevet, det samme var vanskeligheter med straffeforfølgelse for husdyrkriminalitet.

Invasjonsåret, 1892, var en tid da mange byer i Wyoming hadde to aviser og en storby som Cheyenne hadde flere, inkludert tre aviser. To av de innflytelsesrike Cheyenne -papirene var imidlertid eid av storfeinteresser - ettersom alle Cheyenne -aviser bare var en kort stund før 1892. Likevel var datidens aviser fulle av avslørende informasjon.

I motsetning til storfebaronene, var Buffalo en by full av ambisiøse unge mennesker som jobbet hardt for å bygge opp samfunnet sitt og skape bedre liv for familiene sine. Johnson County -folk var ikke helgener, men de lignet lite på bildet av kriminalitet som senere ble videresendt av store fe.

På 1880 -tallet styrte storfebaronene i Johnson County og over Wyoming Territory sine vanlige områder som private fiefdoms. Most had little concept of the true carrying capacity of those ranges, however, and overstocked them.

Cattle prices peaked in 1882, drawing more money to the business and more cattle to the land. Soon there was a beef glut. Prices began to fall, yet no one could think of anything to do but bring in even more cattle—weakening the ranges further and driving prices further down. Then bad drought in 1886 was followed by the terrible winter of 1886-1887.

Johnson County’s newspapers show that following that harsh winter, the Wyoming cattle industry was in bad financial trouble and that the owners of the big herds deeply resented those who might challenge their unfettered right to run their cattle on public land.

Such a challenge could become deadly. That was the 1889 fate of two homesteaders, lynched near the Sweetwater River in Carbon County by six cattlemen on July 20, 1889. Ellen Watson and Jim Averell had homesteads in the middle of the cattlemen’s customary range.

Sensational newspapers articles appeared immediately after the lynchings portraying Watson as a prostitute who accepted cattle for her favors. These articles, however, were written by an employee of one of the Cheyenne dailies owned by cattle barons, and recent authoritative writings show that they were false, created out of whole cloth.

That same year, 1889, Johnson County juries acquitted suspects in five cattle theft cases. Big cattlemen reacted in fury, stating publicly and in private correspondence that the acquittals proved it was impossible to present evidence to a Johnson County jury—no matter how compelling—that would produce a conviction.

A close review of contemporary newspaper articles and court documents, however, shows the cases brought against the accused men to be deeply flawed, seemingly motivated by huge reward money and a frantic determination by owners of big herds to punish owners of small herds who claimed rights to grazing on public land.

In 1891, several of the cattle barons resolved to take action against their tormentors.

The first step was the formation of an assassination squad of employees of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association. This small group of men included Frank Canton, a former Johnson County sheriff and a stock inspector of the association. Their first action was to hang a man from Newcastle, Wyo., Tom Waggoner, who traded horses. They followed this with an attack upon Nate Champion.

Champion was a small man with a reputation as a formidable fighter. He ran a herd of about 200 cattle on one of the forks of Powder River. Champion’s stock grazed on public land, exactly as did the animals of the big cattlemen. He insisted that his cattle had as much right to grass on the public range as did the herd of any cattle baron.

Legally, Champion was absolutely right, but big cattlemen did not take well to his defiance. He was declared “king of the cattle thieves” by a newspaper reporter sympathetic to the cattle barons, although no charges had ever been brought against him. Indeed, after the invasion, Willis Van Devanter, the astute attorney for the invaders, stated there was no evidence at all to substantiate charges of cattle theft against Champion. Still, the prominent cattlemen wanted to punish Nate Champion.

In the early morning of November 1, 1891, members of the assassination squad burst into a cabin occupied by Champion and another man. The cabin was a tiny structure located next to the Middle Fork of Powder River in the Hole-in-the-Wall country about 15 miles southwest of what's now Kaycee, Wyo. Only two members of the five-man squad were able to squeeze into the cabin. Those two, however, held pistols on their two captives and demanded that Champion “give it up.”

Champion, he told the Buffalo Bulletin the next month, stretched and yawned while reaching under a pillow for his own revolver, and the shooting started. The intruders fired shots at point-blank range, so close that powder burns were left on Champion’s face. Amazingly, all the shots fired at him missed. Champion’s return fire, however, did not. One of the squad members was hit in the arm and the other was shot in the belly, a mortal wound. The assassination squad fled, but not before Champion got a good look at one of them.

Private and public investigations followed, and one of the assassination squad members was forced to admit the names of all the members before two witnesses. Those two witnesses were Powder River ranchers John A. Tisdale and, perhaps, Orley “Ranger” Jones. Johnson County authorities filed attempted murder charges against Joe Elliott, the attacker identified by Nate Champion, and local newspapers pushed for charges against the wealthy and prominent cattlemen believed to be the employers of the assassination squad.

About Dec. 1, 1891, both Tisdale and Jones were assassinated. The killings created an uproar in Johnson County and the movement to charge the “higher-ups” became the whole thrust of the community.

The means to arrest and charge complicit cattlemen were at hand. If Johnson County could obtain a conviction against even one of the assassins, he would probably name his employers to avoid a long prison term. On Feb. 8, 1892, a preliminary hearing was held in the case of State v. Elliott for the attempted murder of Nate Champion.

Champion gave dramatic testimony, and Joe Elliott, a stock detective of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, was bound over for trial in the district court on the attempted murder charge. Johnson County attorneys had amassed a great deal of evidence against Elliott and, with Champion’s testimony, seemed likely to convict him when his case came to trial. The big cattlemen promptly resolved, in early March 1892, to go north and invade Johnson County.

Only a month later, the invaders left Cheyenne and traveled to Johnson County. When they arrived in the southern tip of the county, one of their local spies told them that “rustlers,” including Champion himself, were holed up in a cabin at the KC Ranch, just a few miles north.

The invading cattlemen knew that with Champion’s testimony Johnson County had a strong case against Elliott, and upon Elliott’s conviction the trail would lead back to his employers. If Champion was not killed, these invaders would probably land in the penitentiary. After long argument the invaders took a vote. The decision was made to go to the KC Ranch and kill him.

They surrounded Champion. For hours he fought the 50 men, wounding three. Finally, during the middle of the afternoon of April 9, 1892, the invaders torched the cabin, forcing him out and shooting him down.

By then, however, the countryside had been alerted, and men all over the area rushed to confront the invaders. The invaders holed up south of Buffalo at the T. A. Ranch. There, they were surrounded by local citizens—a posse that eventually grew to more than 400 men. The posse conducted a formal siege, no doubt led by the Civil War veterans among them.

Over three days the posse slowly closed in on the invaders. On the morning of the third day, 14 posse members started moving toward the T. A. Ranch house, using a ponderous, movable fort called a “go-devil” or “ark of safety” made of logs on the running gears of two wagons.

The idea was that when the posse got close to the invaders’ fortifications, they would use dynamite to force the invaders out into the open. The running gears came from the captured supply wagons of the invaders, which contained dynamite intended for use against the people of Johnson County. But the posse never got the chance to use its new weapon. In the nick of time, soldiers from nearby Fort McKinney rode onto the scene and took the invaders into custody.

The governor of Wyoming, Amos Barber, had summoned the soldiers. Barber, according to accounts written years later by the invaders and their sympathizers, was thoroughly knowledgeable about and supportive of the invasion. When he learned that his cattlemen friends were in deep trouble, he telegraphed President Benjamin Harrison in Washington, D. C.

When the telegrams, for reasons that are unclear, failed to go through, Barber asked the two senators from Wyoming, Joseph Carey and Francis E. Warren, to go to the White House and pay a personal call on the president. Harrison was quickly convinced that there was an “insurrection,” as Barber’s first telegram had termed it, in Wyoming and agreed to call on Fort McKinney troops to suppress it.

Once the invaders were taken into custody, however, Governor Barber assumed control over them and refused to even allow them to be questioned the governor completely frustrated the investigation and prosecution of the invaders by Johnson County authorities.

The costs for feeding and housing the prisoners, though, still had to be paid by Johnson County, not to mention the substantial charges for preparation and presentation of the criminal cases. The state provided no financial assistance whatever. Predictably, a travesty of justice was played out eight months later in a Cheyenne courtroom. The charges against all the invaders had to be dismissed because a jury could not be seated to try their cases, and Johnson County did not have the funds to pay the continuing expenses of prosecution.

The cattle barons were protected by a friendly judicial system, but that system could not protect these men from Wyoming voters. The Republican Party was closely associated with the cattlemen and their principal organization, the Wyoming Stock Growers Association. One of the state’s two U.S. senators, Republican Joseph Carey, had recently served as president of the association.

Many Wyoming people were offended by the spectacle of the senators’ late night personal visit to President Harrison to rescue wrongdoers. (The senators had rousted the president out of bed). The invaders and their supporters did everything they could in the months after the invasion to suppress Johnson County and its advocates, including mounting a fervent attempt to have martial law declared in the state. President Harrison, however, apparently made cautious when great numbers of Wyoming people protested his earlier actions, refused to do that.

The 1892 election was a landslide in favor of the Wyoming Democratic Party. A Democrat was elected governor and another was elected to the U.S. Congress. At the time, U.S. senators were still elected by state legislatures enough Democrats were elected to the Wyoming state legislature that no Republican could be selected for the U.S. Senate. Senator Francis E. Warren lost his seat.

Still, the 1892 election hardly proved to be an unalloyed good to Wyoming Democrats. Because of fears and resentments stirred up by the invasion, the 1893 legislative session was as bitter and partisan as any in the history of the state. Democrats now controlled the Wyoming House but Republicans retained control of the Senate.

But the state’s Democrats had made the mistake of running “fusion” tickets with the Wyoming Populist Party and, in the crunch, found that the two parties could not operate well together. No Republican was sent to the U.S. Senate, but because of the political incompetence of the fusion coalition, no Democrat was either. For two years, Wyoming had only one senator in the U.S. Congress.

In 1894, following the nationwide Panic of 1893, Wyoming voters threw out the Democrats, the party in power during that economic catastrophe. Francis E. Warren was returned to the U.S. Senate in 1895 and served there for the next 34 years.

Despite mixed electoral results, there were permanent and positive changes in response to the Johnson County War. Wyoming people had made it abundantly clear—by their votes and by strong resolutions to public officials reported in newspapers-- that they would not tolerate abuses like the invasion of Johnson County.

Perhaps most significantly, the organization primarily responsible for the Johnson County War, the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, was changed forever. Plagued by continuing economic woes, the cattle barons in the association permanently altered this organization in 1893 when they opened their group to all the stock growers in Wyoming.

In what was a galling but necessary action, the small cattlemen of Wyoming, vilified such a short while before, were invited to join. This action abruptly halted the overwhelming hostility of the big cattlemen toward the smaller operators and stopped such programs as the confiscation, at point of sale, of suspected rustlers’ cattle by the Wyoming Livestock Commission.

After 1893, a measure of peace descended upon the Wyoming range, although it wasn’t until 16 years later that armed economic vigilantism was finally stopped in Wyoming. Cattlemen raiders —killing sheep and sheepherders—were convicted of serious crimes after the 1909 Spring Creek Raid south of Tensleep, Wyo., and were sent to the Wyoming penitentiary. Wyomingites could finally claim to have put frontier mob rule behind them.


John H. Tunstall Murder Site

Emner. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Notable Events. A significant historical date for this entry is February 18, 1878.

Plassering. 33° 21.834′ N, 105° 26.168′ W. Marker is in Glencoe, New Mexico, in Lincoln County. Marker can be reached from Forest Road FS9019D. Located approximately 4 miles off of US 70. See directions below. Trykk for kart. Marker is in this post office area: Glencoe NM 88324, United States of America. Trykk for veibeskrivelse.

Andre markører i nærheten. At least 8 other markers are within 10 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. John H. Tunstall (approx. 3.2 miles away) San Patricio (approx. 7.1 miles away) Old Dowlin Mill (approx. 8.6 miles away) Lincoln (approx. 9.1 miles away) Ellis and Sons' Store (approx. 9.3 miles away) Montano Store (approx. 9.3 miles away) Earliest Courthouse (approx. 9.3 miles away) San Juan Church (approx. 9.3 miles away).

Mer om denne markøren. The road to get to the Tunstall Kill Site is very rocky. It's not recommended you attempt the drive in a low clearance vehicle, however a 4WD is not necessary.

As of August 2015, Google Maps incorrectly shows the location of FS 9019D. FS 9019D is actually about 100 yards east of the location shown on Google Maps (closer to the bend in FS 443).

Regarding John H. Tunstall Murder Site. Veibeskrivelse:
1. From US 70 turn south onto Glencoe Loop (US 70 Frontage Road).
2. From Glencoe Loop turn south onto Coe Canyon Road.
3. Take Coe Canyon Road until you come to the fork at Tunstall Canyon Road.
4. Take the left leg of the fork which will

become Forest Road 443.
5. Drive south down Forest Road 443 for approximately 4 miles (always veer right -- dont take any roads that fork off to the left).
6. Stop at marker 9019D and park (The marker is easy to miss so pay close attention).
7. Walk down the trail north into the trees.
8. Walk North 408.3 yards along the jeep trail to a tree stump on the left side of the trail with a red arrow painted on it pointing straight ahead. The paint is faded and blends into scenery.
9. Walk West 79.4 yards to the marker.


Home Brewed Mojo

2/18/1878 - A single death on this day proves to be the spark that ignites what Western historians call the Lincoln County War . a battle between rival factions for control of the New Mexican region that will last until July of 1878, see numerous back-and-forth revenge killings, feature a five-day siege of a Lincoln store, and turn an unknown young cowboy named William Bonney (or Henry McCarty if that is your preference) into the outlaw legend, Billy the Kid.

Billy The Kid

The conflict that will cost many lives and fortunes before its completion, results from antagonisms that develop when the control of the area's ranching and dry goods interests (and contracts to supply the military with beef) begin to be challenged in 1876 by a disparate triumvirate seeking to break the monopoly . a threesome made up of wealthy 24-year-old English businessman John Tunstall, 35-year-old Canadian lawyer and merchant Alexander McSween, and 53-year-old cattle rancher John Chisum (his spread contains over 100,000 cattle). A very formidable group facing a ruthless foe in the form of what is called "The House" . a name for the members of those in support of the ongoing criminal activities of the Murphy-Dolan interests in New Mexico.

Tunstall, McSween, and Chisum

Named for its creator, 47-year-old Lawrence Murphy from Ireland, and his business partner, 30-year-old Union Army veteran James Dolan, the Murphy-Dolan gang makes big money off the region starting in 1869 with the establishment of L. G. Murphy & Co. Soaking local farmers and ranchers with high prices as the only game in town (with their tentacles into the entire territory as part of what is called the "Santa Fe Ring" that includes rancher Thomas Catron, a rancher with a spread of 3,000,000 acres, who also happens to be attorney general, district attorney William Rynerson, territorial judge Warren Bristol, and territorial governor Samuel Beach Axtell) . and wanting their monopoly to remain as is, they are not happy when their rivals open J. H. Tunstall & Co. in 1876. Not happy to the extent that when their foes won't back down, they begin hiring as cowboys, outlaws and killers from the Seven River Warriors, the Jesse Evans Gang (of which Billy the Kid was a former member), and the John Kinney Gang (actions that Tunstall and friends react to by hiring their own gunmen, a group that will call themselves The Regulators and includes the Kid, Tom O'Folliard, Jose Chavez y Chavez, Richard Brewer, Frank McNab, Charlie Bowdrie, Jim French, George and Frank Coe, and Doc Scurlock).

Murphy, Dolan, Catron, And Jesse Evans (With Friend)

Mix those circumstances with "we were here first" attitudes, one side being composed mostly of Irish Catholics, while the other come from Protestant backgrounds, the fact that McSween once served as a Murphy-Dolan lawyer, and a trumped up case (later dismissed) that results in a court order to attach McSween's assets, and the bloodshed that will take place becomes inevitable . especially when the court order is misused to also grab the assets of the Tunstall ranch.

Posse dispatched on 2/18/1878 to put Tunstall out of business one way or another, when the gunmen for Murphy-Dolan arrive at the ranch and find its owner not home, a smaller group leaves the ranch and goes in search of Tunstall and any of his cowboys seeking trouble. Unaware of what is happening back at the ranch, Tunstall and a group of his ranch hands, that includes Billy the Kid, are leisurely riding to Lincoln with a small group of nine horses. Pursued and caught a few miles out of town in an area of scrub timber, the posse opens fire without warning on Tunstall and his men, scattering the riders (who gallop off to a hillside overlooking the trail into town). Brave to a fault or just plain stupid, instead of escaping into a better position also where he can defend himself, Tunstall stays with his horses and surrenders to the "deputies" that confront him . Jesse Evans, William Morton, and Tom Hill. But surrender isn't what the trio is looking for and Tunstall is gunned down by a rifle bullet to the chest and a revolver (a killing witnessed by his men on the hill) round through the back of his head. Killing complete, the trio then fires Tunstall's pistol and arranges the body to match the story the men will tell of the rancher resisting arrest . a story bought by authorities under the control of the Murphy-Dolan faction, no charges are filed against the threesome for Tunstall's death.

War! Tunstall's murder incites both sides into an open clash that will have Morton and Hill (and Frank Baker) murdered near Blackwater Creek in another "attempted escape" killing of individuals already disarmed and in custody (Morton will be shot ten times, and Hill goes down with five pieces of lead in his body), the ambush assassination by Billy and his Regulator buddies of Lincoln Sheriff William Brady and Deputy George W. Hindman (blaming the pair for Tunstall's death), the deaths of Buckshot Roberts (Murphy-Dolan) and Richard Brewer (Tunstall) in a gun battle at a trading post called Blazer's Mill, a gunfight at the local Fritz ranch that results in the death of Frank McNab, gunnings in Lincoln that take the lives of several Murphy-Dolan men, and the five-day Battle of Lincoln that results in the death McSween as he flees his burning home and store. Weary of the killings, many of the bitter combatants already dead, and the United States government involved in the form of a new governor being appointed by President Grant (Civil War general and soon-to-be Ben Hur author, Lew Wallace) and sent to New Mexico to put the war to an end, the clash peters out in July of 1878 (Murphy will grab all of Tunstall's ranch, but dies of cancer soon after, while Dolan drinks himself to death on his ranch by the age of 49) without a clear cut winner.

Sheriff Brady

The End Of The Battle Of Lincoln

There is however one huge living loser when the war ends (but not for long) . Mr. William Bonney, who will surrender to authorities under the promise of a pardon by Governor Wallace for providing testimony about the murder of attorney Huston Chapman by members of the Murphy-Dolan faction, have the pardon reneged on, form a gang of rustling outlaws, see his best friend, Charlie Bowdre, killed when Sheriff Pat Garrett and posse mistake him for the Kid, get caught, tried for the murder, and be sentenced to death for the Brady ambush (legend has the judge sentencing Billy to hang until he is "dead, dead, dead," to which the outlaw responds, "Go to hell, hell, hell."), and kill Lincoln deputies James Bell and Bob Ollinger escaping the Lincoln jail, before being killed by Garrett at the home of Pete Maxwell on 7/14/1881 at the age of only 21.

Garrett

Newly Discovered Photo Believed To Be Of Billy The Kid

2/18/1878, and with the murder of rancher John Tunstall, the Lincoln County War begins!


Brady's family were Irish Catholics and members of the rural working class of County Cavan, his father being a potato farmer. He attended the newly opened local school and graduated in 1844. [1]

After the death of his father, he was briefly involved in local politics. During the Great Famine, he left for the United States. [2]

Upon his arrival in New York in July 1851, Brady enlisted in the U.S. Army and was assigned to the mounted rifles. He spent five years in southern Texas achieving the rank of Sergeant and upon reenlistment was transferred to Fort Craig, New Mexico in 1856. [3]

His enlistment was up in March 1861 and he was discharged at Fort Craig, only to enroll in the New Mexico Volunteers as a first lieutenant in Albuquerque the following August. He fought against the Confederate Army at the Battle of Glorieta Pass and stayed with his unit when it was incorporated into the First Regiment, New Mexico Cavalry. [ trenger Kilde ]

After the Confederate troops left New Mexico, he was assigned as a recruiting officer in Polvadera, New Mexico. [4]

In 1862, he married María Bonifacia Chávez, a Mexican-American widow from Corrales. [5]

The following year Brady was assigned as the acting commander at Fort Stanton, and in 1864 was confirmed as commandant there. He led several successful campaigns against the Navajo and Apaches. He served as commandant at several other New Mexico forts until his discharge in October 1866 at the brevet rank of Major. [6]

Brady and his wife and children settled on a ranch on the Río Bonito, four miles east of Lincoln, New Mexico. He was first elected Sheriff of Lincoln County on September 6, 1869 and took office in January 1870.

In 1871, Brady was elected as the first representative from Lincoln County to sit in the Territorial Legislature. [7] He lost his seat in the next election. In 1876 he was elected again as sheriff. [8]

Although Lincoln sheriffs had tried for eight years to get money from the county for a jail, Brady finally got funds ($3,000) [9] to build an underground holding area in 1877.

Prior to that, the sheriff used the military jail at Fort Stanton. The new jail was twenty feet wide by thirty feet long, and ten feet deep. It was lined with rough logs and divided into two cells with a ladder and a trap door for access. [10] Light, when available, was by candles. [11]

Conditions were so bad and escapes so common that the county anted up for a real jail in 1880. One of the causes in the lack of confidence in Sheriff Brady was the escape in November 1877 of Jesse Evans and his gang. [10]

Brady sided with the Murphy-Dolan faction in the Lincoln County War. This put him up against Alexander McSween, Billy the Kid and the Regulatorer. Lawrence Murphy owned the mercantile (the dry goods store) in Lincoln, and Brady owed him money.

In the Spring of 1877, Brady was beaten up by two bravados, believed to be John Tunstall’s cowboys, in the middle of the main street of Lincoln. But their identity was never confirmed. People speculated that they worked for Tunstall. [12]

Lincoln county deputies, sympathetic with the Murphy-Dolan faction, shot and killed Tunstall on the trail in cold blood. Tunstall was the first fatality in what has become known as the Lincoln County War. [ trenger Kilde ]

On April 1, 1878, Regulatorer Jim French, Frank McNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Newton Brown and Billy the Kid ambushed Brady and four of his deputies on the main street of Lincoln. They fired on the five men from behind an adobe wall. Brady, aged 48, died of at least a dozen gunshot wounds. [13] Deputy George W. Hindman was hit twice, fatally. [14]

Once the shooting stopped, Billy the Kid and Jim French broke cover and dashed to Brady's corpse, either to get his arrest warrant for McSween or to retrieve Billy's rifle which Brady had kept. A surviving deputy, Billy Matthews, wounded both men with a rifle bullet that passed through each of their legs. They still managed to escape. [ trenger Kilde ]

Brady was first replaced by John Copeland as sheriff. Copeland refused to take sides in the conflict. Dolan used his influence to have him replaced by George Peppin. [ trenger Kilde ]

It was for the murder of Brady that Billy the Kid was convicted by a territorial court in April, 1881, and sentenced to death, a conviction that led to his famous escape from the Lincoln County jail and his subsequent killing by Sheriff Pat Garrett. [15]


Murder ignites Lincoln County War - HISTORY

We have attempted to transcribe the articles word for word, except for correcting the more common misspelled words.

Kilde: Carrizozo Outlook issue of 16 Mar 1917.

Transcribed by Mike Magers.

Note: The article was written in 1917. There are several last names which we now know to be different:

Harrold = Horrell, Tungstel = Tunstall, McSwain = McSween, Scholan = Scholand (Emilie Fritz)

Lincoln County Scene of Exciting Early Day Events

The historic old courthouse at the now peaceful little town of Lincoln, which is about sixty miles west of Roswell is perhaps better known and more widely celebrated as the center of stirring events and bloody battles and the spot where more bad men lost their lives with their boots on than any other part of New Mexico.

The first of these important events was the "Harrold War," the principal scenes of which were enacted in or about Lincoln.

It was in general a feud based upon race hatred. The story of the war in brief is as follows In 1873 a family of five brothers, named Harrold, came from Lampasas county, Texas, bringing their families and stock with them, and settled on the Ruidoso about 10 miles from Lincoln.

One day while on a trip to Lincoln one of the boys, Ben, with two other white men got to drinking and brandishing their guns, which some Mexican deputies took away from them. This so angered the white men that they procured more guns and in the fight which followed the 3 Americans and one Mexican were killed. When Ben's brothers heard of this, they came to Lincoln and tried to have the Mexicans prosecuted, but as the Mexicans had only done their duty, they failed in that way, so took out their revenge on them by killing every Mexican they met. The Mexicans gave back the same thing, and many murders were committed until finally the Harrold brothers returned to Texas, where they all met violent ends.

This ended what was known as the Harrold war, but the ill feeling still slumbered for a period of about two years, when what was termed the "Lincoln county war" broke out afresh, and between the years of 1875 and 1882, Lincoln county was probably the bloodiest spot in the United States, considering its population.

Here it was that the bloody feud between the two parties of cattlemen began in the spring of 1876. The two parties were headed, one by John S. Chisum, whose attorney, Alex McSwain, was really the fighting head of this faction, and the other by Dolan and Riley. These two firms were bitter rivals to secure the contracts to furnish both cattle and other supplies to Fort Stanton, then a military post, now a government hospital for marine consumptives, 9 miles southwest of Lincoln. Each of these factions accused the other of stealing the other's cattle with which to furnish Fort Stanton with beef. Naturally the majority of the residents of the whole county were drawn to declare sides with one or the other. Numerous bad men were hired to do the gun work for these two factions.

Following is a short extract from "The History of New Mexico," which explains in brief the cause of the Lincoln county war. Alexander McSwain, who headed the faction of which Mr. Coe was a partisan, came to Lincoln about 1870, practiced law for several years and in 1873 established a partnership with John H Tungstel in the mercantile, banking and ranch business at Lincoln, in the building now occupied by J. J. Jaffa & Co. McSwain also became attorney for John S. Chisum, the cattle king of the Pecos river, who, at this time had about 70,000 head of cattle on the range.

"Colonel Emil Fritz and Major L. G. Murphy had been post traders at Fort Stanton until the government turned out the traders and then about 1867 or '68 they came to Lincoln and continued their mercantile partnership in the building later used as a courthouse. While on a trip to Germany, Colonel Fritz died and a short time afterward, J. J. Dolan and John Riley succeeded to the firm of L. G. Murphy & Co., tho Murphy remained in the firm as silent partner.

"These two firms were bitter rivals for the contracts to supply the government posts with cattle and other supplies. The rivalry was carried on both above and below board and doubtless both sides resorted to questionable means of obtaining advantage, but it became rather generally understood that a great many of the cattle that were being turned in by the firm of Dolan and Riley were stolen cattle picked out from the ------ brand herds then owned and run by John Chisum. The latter, with his attorney McSwain, prosecuted a number of persons for the larceny of these cattle.

"This is thought to have been the entering wedge which separated the people of Lincoln county into two contending factions.

"About a year before the first act of hostility in the war McSwain, acting as attorney for Mrs. Scholan, sister of Colonel Emil Fritz, collected an insuance policy on the life of her deceased brother. McSwain, so it is alleged, had previously agreed with the sister to collect the policy at his own expense and was then to retain a certain percent of the proceeds.

"He went to New York at his own expense and compromised the case with the insurance company which had theretofore refused to pay a dollar. On his return he offered to turn over to Mrs. Scholan, as substantiated by several witnesses, the entire amount collected by him less his percentage as attorney.

"Mrs. Scholan, acting on the advice of Murphy, Dolan and Riley, refused to accept this money and demanded the entire collection less the personal expenses. McSwain refused and Mrs. Scholan commenced legal action to recover the insurance money. In this suit an attachment was levied on the mercantile firm of Tungstel & McSwain and upon the cattle on the ranch owned by Tungstel on the Felix river in Lincoln county.

"When the deputy sheriff and his posse arrived at the ranch to serve the writ they found there John H. Tungstel, Richard Brewer his foreman and William H. Bonney, later famous as Billy the Kid. Mr. Coe states that the parties were friendly while at the ranch and after levying the attachment on the cattle the deputy sheriff permitted Tungstel, Brewer and Bonney to set off for town with all the ranch horses. When about twenty miles from the ranch the latter party discovered a bunch of turkeys in what is now known as Tungstel canyon and stopped to hunt them. While hunting the sheriff's force came upon them. According to the statement of Brewer and Bonney, Tungstel rode toward the posse. Arriving within 15 to 20 feet they ordered him to thow up his hands which he did, dropping his gun and everything, and they shot him while his hands were over his head.--Continued next week. [Source: Carrizozo Outlook. (Carrizozo, N.M.), 16 Mar 1917.]

Continued from last week - "At the first intimation of danger the other two men had made for the shelter of a hill where they were attacked and a general battle ensued. They stood off the posse until nightfall when they escaped and made their way to Lincoln and related the tragedy. Within two days the town was full of armed and excited men roused to the highest pitch of bitterness by the killing. Such was the opening event of the Lincoln war. The resulting fights and quasi legal contests could hardly be dignified with the name of war, since personal enmity and the spirit of feud were pregnant elements of the dispute. As always happens at such a time, the criminal class gladly allied itself with one party of the other, glad to stand its outlawry with some semblance of justifiable warfare. The events that follow were in reality the combination of the hatred provoked by cattle rustling and less specific roguery intensified by alliance with the opposing sides of many persons who had individual scores to settle."

It is the intention of this narrative to dwell chiefly opon the lawlessness of the famous desperado Billy the Kid, of whom nearly every person of mature years must have heard, and opon whom rests the record of having killed 21 men, one man for each year of his life at the time he was killed.

The first murder in Lincoln county for which Billy the Kid was responsible was that of Sheriff William Brady, who was shot down by the outlaw on the streets of Lincoln as the sheriff was hunting the kid, for whom he had a warrant for his arrest. After the death of Brady, Sheriff Pat F. Garrett, who then ranched near Roswell, was elected sheriff as he was known to be brave and a good shot and who generally got the man he went after. Garrett had arrested Billy the Kid for some murders he had committed and after having him tried at Las Cruces he was condemned to be executed at Lincoln to which place he was taken. One day while walking down the corridor in the old courthouse in charge of his guard Bell, Billy the Kid asked to have his handcuffs removed for a moment and Bell did so, but soon Bell regretted his act for the kid sprang up the stairs and breaking in the door of the room where the guns were kept he grabbed one and turned and killed Bell with one shot. Then crawling to the edge of the balcony he called to the other guard Olinger, who was bringing the other prisoners back from dinner from across the street. Olinger looked up and Billy filled him full of buckshot from Olinger's own gun. He then called down to a man who had charge of the courthouse stable and ordered him to saddle Billy Burke's horse for him and in the meantime he ordered an old man to file off the handcuffs which were still locked on one wrist, keeping him covered with a gun while the work was being done. As sooon as he was free he rode out of town, shooting at everyone he saw, toward Ft. Sumner, his old stamping grounds. Sheriff Pat Garrett, who was in White Oaks at the time, at once set out to capture him, which he did in two weeks, when he killed the notorious outlaw at the home of Pete Maxwell, at Ft. Sumner.


Billy the Kid and the Lincoln County War: the Irish connection

The Lincoln County War of 1878 was really a battle fought between two business factions. Nowadays the weapons in such a contest would be advertising, pricing and shopping convenience. In the lawless territory of 1870s New Mexico, the weapons were more lethal. In the early 1870s Lawrence G. Murphy, an Irish emigrant and ex-Union Army soldier, went into business in Lincoln County, New Mexico, opening a store and saloon in the town of Lincoln itself. Although sparsely populated, Lincoln was then geographically the largest county in the United States and not a bad place to have a monopoly. Along with his junior partner, another Irishman called Jimmy Dolan, Murphy sold goods and supplies to rich and poor alike, including the famous cattle king and trail-blazer John Chisum. Not all of their customers were happy with the prices and interest rates on outstanding balances. Certainly Chisum wasn’t. But a monopoly is a monopoly—until competition arrives.
In the mid-1870s competition appeared in the guise of an ambitious Englishman named John Henry Tunstall. The scion of a wealthy family, Tunstall saw an opportunity. Indeed, in a letter to his parents back in England, he expressed the goal of ‘capturing fifty cents out of every dollar in the county’. To that end, and with the tacit support of John Chisum, Tunstall set up his own store and bank in Lincoln, across the street and a little bit down from the Murphy/Dolan establishment. Needless to say, the lads weren’t pleased. So relations rapidly deteriorated, with both factions hiring their own small private armies. One of Tunstall’s hirelings was a young William Bonny, who subsequently became (in)famous as Billy the Kid.
The smouldering hostilities evolved into open conflict in early 1878 when an associate of Tunstall’s, a lawyer named Alexander McSween, became embroiled in an alleged embezzlement dispute with Murphy and Dolan. In the ensuing events, Tunstall was murdered by a trio of Murphy/Dolan gunmen, nominally working within the law. All hell promptly broke loose. A group of Tunstall’s men, calling themselves ‘Regulators’, set out to avenge him. They too had initial legal cover, thanks to indictments and arrest authorisation from an aging justice of the peace, one John (Squire) Wilson. Unfortunately for their legal standing, the territorial governor quickly revoked their authority.
As wars go it didn’t last long, finally culminating in the five-day Battle of Lincoln in July 1878. By the battle’s conclusion, the McSween house had been burned down and McSween had been killed. But in reality the war produced no clear winner. On the one hand, both Tunstall and McSween were dead. On the other, the Murphy/Dolan operation was bankrupt and, coincidentally, Murphy was on the point of fatally succumbing to alcoholism. There was also another loser: Billy the Kid emerged from the war as an outlaw with two arrest warrants for murder against his name.
As prime movers in the Lincoln County War, Murphy and Dolan were part of the Irish connection. So too was William Brady. Born in Cavan town in August 1829, Brady emigrated to the US as a young man and subsequently spent ten years in the Union Army, followed by five in the Civil War New Mexico Volunteers. After being mustered out in 1866, he farmed east of Lincoln and assumed a number of civic roles, including that of sheriff of Lincoln County. In that capacity Brady aligned himself with Lawrence Murphy, his friend and former army colleague. Their relationship was compounded by his being heavily in debt to Murphy. After Tunstall’s murder Brady became a prime target for the avengers.
Although he had originally deputised the men who killed Tunstall, there is no evidence that Brady was complicit in Tunstall’s murder. Nor was he an active protagonist in the ongoing hostilities. Indeed, historian Robert Utley suggests that he was essentially lying low, waiting for the upcoming district court to resolve matters. Nonetheless, on 1 April 1878 Brady was ambushed and murdered while walking down Lincoln’s main street. The murdering party consisted of six Tunstall men, one of whom was Billy the Kid. Three years later, Bonny was sentenced to hang for his role in Brady’s killing. Of course, as Western buffs know, he escaped from Lincoln jail a couple of weeks before the execution date, killing two guards in the process. Eleven weeks later, Pat Garrett tracked him down to Fort Sumner and shot him dead.

Charles Stewart Parnell—Gray initially opposed him and threw the weight of the Freeman—unsuccessfully—against him, but once Parnell had established his leadership Gray largely supported him. (Vanity Fair)

Pat Murphy is a history and economics graduate from University College Dublin who has recently retired from a 40-year career in financial services and information technology in Toronto, Can


Se videoen: War In Lincoln County Documentary 510 - Billy The Kid


Kommentarer:

  1. Sigmund

    All above told the truth. Let's discuss this question.

  2. Abdul-Shakur

    Jeg beklager at jeg ikke kan delta i diskusjonen nå. Veldig lite informasjon. Men jeg følger gjerne dette temaet.

  3. Dagul

    Godt nytt år til alle besøkende på Vokzal.biz.ua! : :)

  4. Perkins

    Det er en bekymring mindre! Lykke til! Bedre!

  5. Thornly

    Yesterday the site did not work, somewhere around 12 o'clock, why?



Skrive en melding